CM 220 Unit 4 Seminar General Education, Composition Kaplan University
Finding Credible Sources • Library databases • Online journals • Googlescholar.com • Look for sources with known authors, reputable publishers, cited sources • Always verify information • Avoid wikipedia.com and other questionable sources
3 ways to use sources • Quote • Summarize • Paraphrase • LIMIT the use of quotes. Increase the originality of your paper by TRANSLATING the information from the sources into your own language.
What is paraphrasing? • Taking source ideas and translating them into your own language, vocabulary, and sentence structure • The source’s meaning and ideas are not changed • Paraphrasing does not simply change a few words. • A paraphrase is usually much shorter than the original source.
How to PARAPHRASE • Decide where you need to include source information in your writing. • Locate the source that best helps you to defend, develop or clarify your ideas • Read the source WITHOUT having your paper open. This helps you to avoid cutting and pasting. • Read the source until you understand it and can explain it to others without having the source open. • Close your source. Open your paper. Insert the source information where you need it, in your own words. • Compare the paraphrase to the original, changing any accidental cutting and pasting to your own words. • Cite the source.
PRACTICE PARAPHRASING How would you paraphrase this source? So That Nobody Has to go to School if They Don’t Want To, by Roger Sipher A decline in standardized test scores is but the most recent indicator that American education is in trouble. One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws force many to attend school who have no wish to be there. Such children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the quality education that is the birthright of every American. The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an education to attend.
Example Title Page Running head: LEGALIZING MARIJUANA 4 Legalizing Marijuana Kate Smith Kaplan University CM 220-01 Professor Thompson April 14, 2010
IN TEXT CITATIONS Requires two or three pieces of information: • Author’s last name • Year • Page or paragraph number (required for direct quotes only) (Thompson, 2007) (Thompson, 2007, p. 345) OR (Thompson, 2007, ¶ 4) A survey by the Census Bureau indicates that half of American households have a computer (Thompson, 2007). According to Thompson (2007), “50 percent of the population have computers” (p. 345).
IN TEXT CITATIONS with no author Many sources do not have a cited author. Websites, for example, often use a CORPORATE AUTHOR (CDC, USDA). If no individual author is listed, cite by the CORPORATE AUTHOR (CDC, 2008) or if no corporate author is listed, by the title of the article or page you are using (New Technologies in the Workplace, 2009).
References page formatting • Start on a new page, titled Reference(s), centered in upper- and lowercase letters. • Include a page header and page number in the upper right-hand corner. • Alphabetize by author’s last name. • Double-space throughout. • Use a hanging indent (1st line of each entry flush left, indent subsequent lines 5-7 spaces). • Match with in-text citations. • Italicize titles of books and periodicals.
Sample References Page Roll the credits 5 References About APA style. (2006). Retrieved January 2, 2007, from APA Web site: http://www.apastyle.org/aboutstyle.html. Landau, J., Druen, P., & Arcuri, J. (2002). Methods for helping students avoid plagiarism. Teaching of Psychology, 29(2), 112-115. Retrieved January 2, 2007, from Academic Search Premier. Segal, C. (2006). Copy this. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(4), 54-54. Retrieved December 22, 2006, from Professional Development Collection. What you need to know about plagiarism. (2006). Retrieved December 22, 2006, from Kaplan University: http://kucampus.kaplan.edu/DocumentStore/kupdocs/pdf/DocsForms/ku_plagiarism.pdf. Villano, M. (2006). Taking the work out of homework. T H E Journal, 33(15), 24-30. Retrieved January 2, 2007, from Professional Development Collection.
Common Source Types • Books • Journal articles • Magazine articles • Newspaper articles • Web sites • Interviews • Speeches • Remember, each source has a specific formatting style!
Book with one author Maslow, A.H. (1974). Toward a psychology of being. Princeton: Van Nostrand. Author. (Publication year). Title. City of publication: publishing company. IN TEXT CITATION: (Maslow, 1974).
Journal Article Miller, W. (1969). Violent crimes in city gangs. Journal of Social Issues, 21(10), 1-28. Author. (year of publication). Title of article. Journal name, volume #(issue #), page number(s). IN TEXT CITATION: (Miller, 1969).
Magazine Article McCurdy, H.G. (1983, June). Brain mechanisms and intelligence. Psychology Today, 46, 61-63. Author’s name. (year/month of publication). Article title. Magazine Name, volume #, page number(s). IN TEXT CITATION: (McCurdy, 1983).
Newspaper Article James, W.R. (1993, November 16). The uninsured and health care. Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A14. Author’s name. (Publication date). Article title. Newspaper name, page # and section. IN TEXT CITATION: (James, 1993).
Internet Source-author known Lynch, T., Smith, J., & White, M. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 2009, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Web site: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/503r.html. IN TEXT CITATION: (Lynch, Smith, & White, 1996). Please note that APA has changed its rule with RETRIEVAL DATE. In general, if a source is apt to change, a Retrieval date is required.
Internet Source-author and date unknown The Stratocaster appreciation page. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://members.tripod.com/~AFH/ IN TEXT CITATION: (The Stratocaster appreciation page, n.d.).