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Estuarine Variability  Tidal  Subtidal Wind and Atmospheric Pressure  Fortnightly M 2 and S 2  Monthly M 2 and N 2  Seasonal (River Discharge). Estuarine Variability  Tidal  Subtidal Wind and Atmospheric Pressure  Fortnightly M 2 and S 2  Monthly

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Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Estuarine Variability

 Tidal

 Subtidal

Wind and Atmospheric Pressure

 Fortnightly

M2 and S2

 Monthly

M2 and N2

 Seasonal (River Discharge)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Estuarine Variability

Tidal

 Subtidal

Wind and Atmospheric Pressure

 Fortnightly

M2 and S2

 Monthly

M2 and N2

 Seasonal (River Discharge)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Tidal Straining

Slack Before Ebb

Ocean

River

Tidal Flow

Ocean

Ebb


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

End of Ebb

Tidal Flow

Flood

Animation of Shear Instability


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Example of Tidal interaction

with density gradient

Chilean Inland Sea

Pitipalena Estuary


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

CTD

Time

Series

1

2


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

1

2


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

z1

To mix the water column, kinetic energy has to be converted to potential energy.

Mixing increases the potential energy of the water column

z2

z


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Potential energy of the water column:

Potential energy per unit volume:

But

The potential energy per unit volume of a mixed

water column is:

Ψ has units ofenergy per unit volume


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

z1

z2

If

z

no energy is required to mix the water column

The energy difference between a mixed and a stratified water column is:

with units of [ Joules/m3 ]

φ is the energy required to mix the water column completely, i.e., the energy required to bring the profile ρ(z) to ρhat

It is called the POTENTIAL ENERGY ANOMALY

It is a proxy for stratification

The greater the φ the more stratified the water column


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

But the changes of stratification per unit time are given by:

Integrating with depth, the depth-integrated density equation is:

are deviations from depth-mean values

Plugging

Simpson et al. (1990, Estuaries,

13, 125)

1st and 2nd terms on RHS are shear dispersion

3rd term is density flux at the surface

4th term is density flux at the bottom

5th term is depth-integrated source/sink term


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

De Boer et al (2008, Ocean Modeling, 22, 1) by:

Bx and By are the along-estuary and cross-estuary straining terms

Ax and Ay are the advection terms

Cx and Cy interaction of density and flow deviations in the vertical

C’x and C’y correlation between vertical shear and density variations in the vertical; depth-averaged counterparts of C

E is vertical mixing and D is vertical advection

Hx and Hy are horizontal dispersion;

Fs and Fb are surface and bottom density fluxes


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Sketch of changes in stratification by:

by the main mechanisms

Burchard and Hofmeister (2008, ECSS, 77, 679)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

1-D idealized numerical simulation of tidal straining by:

Burchard and Hofmeister (2008, ECSS, 77, 679)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

destratified @ by:

end of flood

stratified entire period

Burchard and Hofmeister (2008, ECSS, 77, 679)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

is: by:

The mean over a tidal cycle of

because

The tidal stress is independent of z as is the barotropic pressure gradient.

0

e.g.

Another dynamical implication of tidal flows is the generation of a mean

non-linear term:

Tidal stresses tend to operate with the barotropic pressure gradient.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Estuarine Variability by:

 Tidal

 Subtidal

Wind and Atmospheric Pressure

 Fortnightly

M2 and S2

 Monthly

M2 and N2

 Seasonal (River Discharge)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Wind forcing may: by:

produce mixing

induce circulation

generate surface slopes

But at the air-water interface it is:

Subtidal Variability

Produced by direct forcing on estuary (local forcing) or on the coastal ocean, which in turn influences estuary (remote forcing - coastal waves)

Wind-produced mixing

The energy per unit area per unit time or power per unit area generated by the wind to mix the water column is proportional to W3

At a height of 10 m, the power per unit area generated by the wind stress is:

The wind power at the air water interface is only 0.1 % of the wind power at a height of 10 m.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

by:s

s

Weak

Depth-Averaged

Transport

Large

Depth-Mean

Transport

Acts from the surface downward

May destratify the entire water column when forcing is large and buoyancy is low

Wind-induced circulation

The wind-induced circulation can compete with estuarine circulation, or act in concert

The wind-induced circulation will depend on stratification:

depth-dependent under stratified conditions

weak depth-dependence under homogeneous conditions


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Mean Momentum Balance? by:

In a Fjord?


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

by:

x1

sx

x2

y

x1

x2

x

Wind-Induced Surface Slope

Can be assessed from the vertical integration of the linearized u momentum equation,

with no rotation @ steady state:

Note that a westward sx (negative) produces a negative slope.

Wind will pile up water in the direction toward which it blows.



Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

The perturbation produced by the wind propagates into the estuary and may cause seiching if the period of the perturbation is close to the natural period of oscillation:


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Forcing from estuary and may cause seiching if the period of the perturbation is close to the natural period of oscillation:Atmospheric Pressure Gradients

Another mechanism that may cause subtidal variability in estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Low

High

mouth

Low

head

High

head

mouth

depth

z

Indirectly through sea level slope

x


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Another mechanism that may cause subtidal variability in estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Hurricane Felix estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Δη = -ΔP/(ρg)

ΔP of 1 mb (100 Pa) = Δη of 0.01 m


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Wind Response to estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Felix


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Estuarine Variability estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

 Tidal

 Subtidal

Wind and Atmospheric Pressure

 Fortnightly

M2 and S2

 Monthly

M2 and N2

 Seasonal (River Discharge)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Tides in estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.Panama City


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Tides in estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.PONCE DE LEON INLET


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Fortnightly variability in the Richardson Number estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Maximum difference at neaps estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Depth estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Mean or

Residual

Flow

Can you see this modulation from the analytical solution?

Ocean

Neap

Spring

Mean or

Residual

Salinity

(Density)

Depth

Increasing salinity


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Estuarine Variability estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

 Tidal

 Subtidal

Wind and Atmospheric Pressure

 Fortnightly

M2 and S2

 Monthly

M2 and N2

 Seasonal (River Discharge)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

N estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

C

N

C

C

N


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

(Journal of Physical Oceanography, 2007, 2133) estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Salt Intrusion vs. River Discharge

Model


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Response to Floyd (Sep 1999) estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

6 estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

5

4

3

2

1

Strong outflow from both River Discharge and NW winds

2 / 3 of volume outflow associated with river input

1 / 3 to wind forcing


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Nearly 50 km from the ocean – Wilcox station estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Mean Discharge in past 20 years: 200 m3/s

60 Suwannees = 1 Mississippi


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Wilcox; 50 km upstream estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Flood Stage

Height (m)

Discharge (m3/s)


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

seaward estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

W

landward


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Influence of Hurricane Bonnie estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Axial Distributions estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

of Salinity

H

M

H

Spring 1999

H

M

M

Fall 1999


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Effects of Freshwater Input estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.


Estuarine variability tidal subtidal wind and atmospheric pressure fortnightly

Surface Salinity estuaries comes from atmospheric or barometric pressure.

Bottom Salinity

Sea level