ENERGY: THE ROOT OF ALL PERVASIVENESS. Anthony Ephremides University of Maryland April 29, 2004. “PERVASIVE” NETWORKING. Ability to access the network (“Anywhere,” Anytime,” “Anyone”) Focus on wireless More specifically: Ad Hoc (multihop). KEY ELEMENTS. Wireless Channel fading
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University of Maryland
April 29, 2004
(“Anywhere,” Anytime,” “Anyone”)
1. Power is preset. Links are added (if SIRs are satisfied) in the order of link metric. Easy for distributed implementation.
2. With iterative power control. Links are added (if SIRs are satisfied) in the order of link metric. Difficult for distributed implementation.
3. First find maximal number of links that can coexist, then run iterative power control. Remove links until SIRs are satisfied. Difficult for distributed implementation.
Throughput and Delay for different scheduling algorithms.
Routing:Bellman-Ford algorithm with routing distance:
(map application-related objective function to link metric or MAC priority)
Ignore Routing Component
Three Operating Options
- Centralized :
All data transmitted to CC
- Distributed :
Each node decides & transmits its decision to CC
- Quantized :
Each node sends a quantized M-bit quantity to CC
- Energy for Data Processing
- based on # of comparisons
- represents the energy consumed for one comparison
- is the # of comparisons
- Energy for Transmission
- based on the distance from sensor nodes to control center and # of bits
- represents the energy consumed for transmitting one bit data
over a unit distance, for a fixed communication system
- represents the distance from sensor nodes to control center
- is the # of bits transmitted
- Total Energy
- Energy Consumption per Node for Three Options
- Centralized Option
- option 1: transmit all observations to CC
- option 2: transmit # of 1 out of T observations to CC
- Distributed Option
- Quantized Option (suboptimal solution)
where represents the expected # of comparisons needed for the suboptimal solution, which is a function of
- Energy Consumption vs. Accuracy
fix ; vary
“It takes energy to be pervasive”