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  1. The 48-96 Schedule Prepared for Local 3711 -Paramedic FF Jimmy Smock -Lt Derrick Kern

  2. Introduction The purpose of this presentation is to present the issues relevant to changing our work schedule to 48 hours on duty, 96 hours off duty. The following information is to assist each Local 3711 member and their families in making informed decisions as to whether or not they would support a six month trial program of the 48/96 work schedule as a viable alternative to the current 24/48 schedule.

  3. The proposed schedule change would ONLY be on a trial basis. • This presentation is designed to give fair treatment of the issues and answer many questions.

  4. There are many factors and questions involved in the research of such a proposed schedule including but not limited to: • Factual schedule comparisons and statistics • Case studies and statistics of departments currently working the schedule • Perceived Pro’s and Con’s • Testimonial information of those who have or currently work the schedule

  5. What is the 48 / 96 work schedule?

  6. The 48-96-work schedule is an alternative to the traditional fire department work schedule. The 48/96 schedule in recent years has been growing in popularity and implementation among a broad range of fire service organizations. This schedule is not a theoretical experiment in the fire service but a proven and valid schedule option. The 48-96 schedule is a progressive alternative, which takes into account emerging trends in the fire service as well as economic and environmental factors.

  7. AABBCCAABBCC The 48/96 is defined as: Two (2) consecutive 24 hour shifts (48 hrs) worked followed by 96 hours off (4 days) Current 24/48 schedule ABCABCABCABC

  8. What does it look like?

  9. History of the 48-96 The 48-96 work schedule has been utilized by professional fire departments since the early 1990s. The departments using this schedule are diverse in their demographics, management structure, and overall philosophies. Currently, there are at least 129 departments operating under the 48-96 schedule with many more departments actively researching the possibility of converting to this schedule also. It was originally created to reduce commuting in high traffic / long distance commuter areas, but has since become a popular schedule due to the many benefits found to be associated with the schedule.

  10. Why a 6 month Trial Period? • Would allow enough time to determine pro’s, con’s, and other issues that may arise from the schedule as they relate specifically to our department and Local. • A trial period of six months would be proposed to allow Vacation/Kelly picks to be chosen for the trial period in order to gain an accurate sense of the proposed schedule .

  11. Most of the departments currently using the 48 -96 schedule utilized a 6-month or 1-year trial period with an escape clause that allowed management or labor personnel to cancel the schedule change at any time and revert back to the prior schedule. Of the research conducted, no departments used the escape clause and only one department did not switch to the 48-96 after the trial period (San Bernardino County).

  12. Votes to initiate a trial period of 48-96 ranged from 52% to 84% in favor of the 129 departments listed below that currently work the schedule. Upon completion of the trial period, votes to adopt 48-96 as the permanent schedule ranged from 90% to 100% in favor. Only two departments were below 90%, with one being 80% and the other 75%. In every case, the support for the schedule change was much higher on the second vote.

  13. Reasons for the switch to the 48-96 schedule varied, but the results of the change were very positive among the vast majority of departments that now work this schedule.

  14. Most departments used a simple majority vote to approve a trial period, and a super majority vote to adopt the schedule indefinitely. • Some departments, labor met outside of negotiations to discuss 48-96 as a separate issue with management. The other half has been discussed in normal negotiations

  15. Though relatively new, the 48-96 schedule is growing rapidly in popularity and implementation across the state and nation. Perhaps the biggest contributing factor to the rapid spread of this schedule is the overwhelming level of satisfaction displayed by personnel who have made the change. This can be seen by the fact that in votes after the trial periods, most departments adopted the 48-96 schedule with 90 – 100% in favor.

  16. Departments that use the 48-96 schedule: Foothill Fire District, Placer CountyFoster CityFort Irwin (San Bernardino County)FresnoIdyllwild Fire Protection District Kern County Fire Kings CountyLa VerneLake ValleyLarkspur Livermore Pleasanton Los Alamitos JFTG Fire DepartmentHermosa BeachHillsborough Manhattan BeachMarinwood MantecaMarin County Marin County Fire DispatchMill Valley FDMontebello Alameda County American Canyon Atascadero FireAuburnBarstow Fire DepartmentBeverly HillsBurlingame FireCathedral CityCamp Roberts, State of California Fire/Police ServicesClovisColtonColumbia College Fire Department, Sonora CAConsumes Fire (Elk Grove and Galt)Contra Costa CountyCorte Madera Culver City Donner SummitEast Contra Costa FireEbbetts Pass Fire DepartmentEl Dorado CountyEl SegundoEurekaFolsom

  17. San Bernardino County (partial)San Rafael FDSan Ramon ValleySouth Pasedna Fire DepartmentStocktonStanislaus Consolidated FireSquaw Valley Tiburon FDTorrance Fire DepartmentTruckeeTorranceTulare CountyUnion CityUSAF Plant #42, Palmdale, CAWest CovinaVallejoVernonUC Davis Fire UplandSouthern Marin FPDTown of Ross Santa Rosa Windsor FPDRincon Valley FPDPechanga Indian Res. FDSan Manual Indian Res. FDPala Indina Res. FD*Noted all departments listed above are from the state of California Montecito Fire Protection DistrictMorongo Indian Res. FDNorth County Fire (Formerly Brisbane & Pacifica) NorthstarNovato FPDRedondo Beach Fire DepartmentPaso RoblesNorth Tahoe FirePiner Ambulance (Napa)Oakldale, CAOrinda Moraga Fire DistrictPalo Alto FireRedondo BeachRincon Reservation FireRio VistaRocklinRoss Valley Rumsey Indian Rancheria, Yolo CountySacramento CitySacramento Metro (county)Santa Barbara CitySausalito Fire DepartmentSanta Clara County FireSan Gabriel San MateoScott's ValleySelmaSouth Lake Tahoe (pending)South PasadenaSan Bernardino City

  18. Flagstaff, AZFort Mojave Mesa, AZCity of Lake Havasu AZHighlands, AZPeoria, AZSummit, AZEagle River Fire Protection District (Eagle-Vail, Avon, CO)South Park Ambulance, COWest Metro Fire Rescue, Jefferson County, COEast Fork Fire Protection District, Douglas County, NVSierra Fire Protection District, Reno, NVAlbuquerque, N.M.Eugene, OregonMarion County Fire, Salem, OregonBurton, SCPecos EMS, TXProvo, UTUnited Fire Authority, UT (County Fire)Logan, UTEagle Mountain, UTLayton, UTLone Peak, UTSaratoga Springs, UTLoveland Symmes Fire Department, Loveland OhioTillamook Hospital Ambulance - Tillamook County, Oregon Bozeman, MT INEEL, (Idaho Nat’l Engineering & Environmental Lab Fire)

  19. Area Departments using/researching the 48/96 schedule Couerd’Lene FD, ID Boise, IDSagle Fire, ID Northern Lakes FD, ID Timber Lake Fire, ID Anacortes Fire, AK Lewiston FD, WA (researching) Spokane Valley FD, WA (researching) Kent Fire, WA Woodinville Fire, WA Chelan Fire, WA Lake Chelan Valley EMS, WA King County Fire District 27, Fall City, WASeaTac Fire Department, WA Lake Stevens Fire, WA Arlington Fire, WA Monroe 3 Fire, WA Cascade Ambulance (Leavenworth) WA Bothell Fire & EMS, Bothell, WA Duvall City, WA Eastside City Fire, WA Bellevue Fire, WA Worley Fire, ID Spirit Lake Fire, ID

  20. Departments that switched from 24/48 to 48/96 schedule(Information gathered from www.48/ Tillamook Hospital Ambulance - Tillamook County, Oregon City of Peoria Arizona City of Lake Havasu AZ City of Boise, Idaho Burton Fire District, Beaufort, South Carolina Loveland Symmes Fire Department, Loveland Ohio City of Stockton Fire Department City of Selma, California City of Provo, Utah City of Eugene, Oregon Fresno City Fire Department, Fresno CA City of Marco Island Fire Department, FL Goodyear, Arizona (Phoenix Metro Area) City of Carlsbad, New Mexico F.D. Fairfield County EMS – Winnsboro, South Carolina City of Brentwood Fire and Rescue, Brentwood Tennessee NASA/WSTF FIRE DEPARTMENT – Las Cruces, New Mexico Jefferson County Fire Rescue – Florida City of Missouri City, Texas Hood River Fire & EMS, Hood River, OR

  21. Fire Departments working the 48/96 • Albuquerque Fire • Responds on over 50,000 calls a year • Six of Albuquerque’s 21 stations run between 350 and 500 calls a month • 12 to 17 calls per day • 36 to 51 calls per tour • Perform ALS • Has been working the 48/96 for nine years

  22. Fire Departments working the 48/96 Cont… • Coeur d’Alene Fire, Idaho • 3 stations • 54 personnel • 7000 calls last year (2013) • run 500 to 600 calls per month • Average 19.1 calls per day • Average 38 call per tour (48 hr shift)

  23. A look at SCFD 8 • 4 stations • 25 personnel • 1,675 calls last year • Majority ran out of Station 81 • St. 81 call volume 2013- 1,253 • St. 82 call volume 2013- 136 • St. 84 call volume 2013- 160 • St. 85 call volume 2013- 123 • Average 4.59 calls per day • Average 137.67 calls per month

  24. The Facts of the 48-96 Schedule: Two (2) consecutive 24 hour shifts (48 hrs) worked followed by 96 hours off (4 days). Defined as…..

  25. The Facts of the 48-96 Schedule • 3 Platoons, ABC shifts, same # of Kelly Days • 2,608 hours per year by contract • 50.15 hours per week • 108.67 hours per pay period (bimonthly) • 61 48hr shift sets per year (122 (109 with K-Days) 24hr shifts per year under current schedule) • 48 sets actually worked with 13 half sets (due to Kelly Days)- only working 24hrs of the 48hrs. No measurable change in hours from current 24/48 schedule. Still contracted to work 2608 hours per year.

  26. 24/48 (Current Schedule) & 48/96Factual Comparisons

  27. Mornings at home not traveling to or from work • 24/48 (Straight schedule-no Kelly Days accounted for) • 1 of every 3 • 33% of mornings at home • 10 per month • 120 per year • 48/96 (Straight schedule-no Kelly Days account for) • 3 of every 6 • 50% of mornings at home • 15 per month • 180 per year • 60 more mornings at home (50% increase)

  28. Number of four-days per year • 24/48 with no Kelly Day • Zero • 48/96 with no Kelly Day • ~61 per year • 24/48 with Kelly Day (5 Day) • 13 per year • 48/96 with Kelly Day (5 Day) • 13 per year

  29. Complete Weekends Off • 24/48 (Straight schedule- No Kelly) • 33% of weekends off per year • 17 per year • 48/96 (Straight schedule- No Kelly) • 50% of weekends off per year • 26 per year • 9 more (50% increase)

  30. Work One Weekend Day (Sat or Sun) • 24/48 (Straight schedule- No Kelly Days accounted for) • 67% of the weekends worked • 35 out of 52 weekends per year • 48/96 (Straight schedule- No Kelly Days accounted for) • 33% of the weekends worked • 17 out of 52 weekends per year • 18 less (50% reduction)

  31. Complete Weekends Worked • 24/48 (Straight schedule- No Kelly Days accounted for) • None • 48/96 (Straight schedule- No Kelly Days accounted for) • 9 per year • 9 more (100% increase)

  32. Number Commutes Per Year • 24/48 (Kelly day schedule accounted for) • 109 per year • 122 per year (no Kelly Days accounted for) • 48/96 (Kelly day schedule accounted for) • 60 per year • 60 per year (no Kelly Days accounted for) • 48 less per year (45% reduction)

  33. Number Commutes Per Year Cont. Example: Commuting from Deer Park to Station 84. -33 miles one way, 66 miles round trip (per Map Quest) 24/48 schedule = 109 round trip commutes/year = 7,194 miles Average 16 mpg = 449.6 gallon of fuel 449.6 gallons @ $3.90/gallon = $1,753.54 in fuel costs 48/96 schedule = 60 round trip commutes/year = 3,960 miles Average 16 mpg = 247.5 gallons of fuel 247.5 gallons @ $3.90/gallon = $965.25 in fuel costs 45% decrease in commutes = 45% decrease in fuel $

  34. Mileage to work cut by 45% • less wear and tear on your vehicle • less time driving, • reduction in fuel cost • reduction in air pollution.  

  35. 9 day work cycle 28 days FLSA period A given day of the week is worked 1 time then off for 2 weeks 6 day work cycle 18 or 24 days FLSA A given day of week is worked 2 consecutive weeks then off for 4 weeks Current Schedule vs. 48-96 24/48 48/96

  36. Number of additional shifts (OT or trades) that can be worked without working a 48 hour shift • 24/48 • 39 (each Kelly day give you a window of 3 days) • 48/96 • 73 additional days per year • 34 more days per year (53% increase)

  37. Number of additional shifts (OT or trades) that can be worked without working a 72 hour shift • 24/48 • 80 additional days per year • 48/96 • 120 additional days per year • 40 more days per year (50% increase)

  38. Weekend rotations 24/4848/96 Sat / Sun. Sat / Sun. X O O X O O X X O X X O X O O O O O O O O X O O X O O O O O O X Repeat Repeat X = 24 hour shift on duty, O = 24 hours off duty.

  39. 2 shifts = 8 days off 48 hours vacation used 4 shifts = 14 days off 96 hours vacation used 6 shifts = 20 days off 144 hours vacation used 2 shifts = 10 days off 48 hours vacation used 4 shifts = 16 days off 96 hours vacation used 6 shifts = 22 days off 144 hours vacation used Time off comparison 24/48 48/96

  40. What happens if I have to work Christmas Eve and Christmas? • In rare occasions one shift can be calendared to work December 24th and 25th in the same year. Departments that have gone to the 48/96 adjust the schedule so that the shift assigned to work the 23rd is reassigned to work the 24th and the shift originally assigned to work the 24th works the 23rd. This only happens every 6 to 9 years.

  41. Christmas Sample A Shift is RED, B Shift is GREEN, C Shift is BLUE

  42. FLSA • Both our current schedule and the 48-96 are 53 hour work weeks, and therefore fall under the FLSA mandates. FLSA periods are 28 days under our current schedule to ensure that all shifts accrue the same amount of work days during the period. The 48-96 requires that pay cycles be maintained in 6-day increments in order to insure that all shifts accrue the same amount of workdays per period. Because of the simplicity of the work cycle, a 48-96 FLSA period may be 6, 12, 18, 24, or 30 days in length. As a rule the 18 and 24-day FLSA periods are most popular. • Positioned correctly, the move to an 18 or 24 day FLSA period could be accomplished with little or no cost to the department.

  43. Policies & Procedures • Minimal, if any, changes of policies and procedures would be necessary. • For purposes of daily work routines, vacation leave, sick leave, overtime, and mandatory staffing or any other policies / procedures, each 24 hour shift is considered one shift. • Some policies and procedures could be implimented to fit the proposed schedule (example: a vacation set would consist of 48 hours instead of 24, implement Kelly Day sets, etc…)

  44. Training • Some departments have had short adjustments to training schedules upon initial implication of the schedule, but found no negative impact on scheduling due to working the same number of days in a month. • Some departments found it easier to schedule classroom training followed by field training on second consecutive day. • Unable to schedule all 3 shifts to train in 3 consecutive days

  45. Cost Savings • Departments have noted cost savings in the following categories: • Some departments have reduced sick leave costs • Overtime on holdovers and extended calls was reduced • Fuel costs associated with reduced commuting (primarily a membership cost savings)

  46. Sick Leave Data • Many departments reported reductions in sick leave after switching schedules. Some departments noted an increase in use of sick leave, and some have noted a minimal or no change in sick leave usage. None of the departments contacted in the San Jose Fire study reported any increase in sick leave. • The general consensus is that the 48/96 has had either a neutral or positive effect on reducing sick leave usage.

  47. Reasons for the reduction could be the result of many factors including some or all of the following: • improved morale • decreased long term fatigue • eliminates sick leave abuse on 2nd shift (50%) of work days

  48. Accurate data that demonstrates direct reductions in sick leave use as a result of the schedule change can be challenging to obtain because “useable” data on sick leave is dependent on many factors including those not related to a work schedule such as long term non-work related illnesses or injuries that can skew sick leave trends. It is impossible to estimate a sick leave reduction, increase, or negative affect for our specific dept. without a trial of the schedule.

  49. What findings have other departments on the 48-96 discovered

  50. Departments found that after the schedule change, the issues of increased fatigue were not realized • Departments found that over time the schedule can significantly reduce fatigue • No increases in injuries or disabilities resulting from the schedule change have been noted • Departments have seen a reduction in sick leave use, some have remained the same, and few have seen increases • Nearly all departments on the schedule noted improvements in morale • Can be difficult being away from family 48 hours at a time when firefighter is needed at home