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Fluid Bridge. Alexander Barnaveli Georgia. If a high voltage is applied to a fluid (e.g. deionized water) in two beakers, which are in contact, a fluid bridge may be formed. Investigate the phenomenon. (High voltages must only be used under appropriate supervision - check local rules.).

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Alexander Barnaveli Georgia


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slide1

Fluid Bridge

Alexander Barnaveli Georgia

If a high voltage is applied to a fluid (e.g. deionized water) in two beakers, which are in contact, a fluid bridge may be formed. Investigate the phenomenon. (High voltages must only be used under appropriate supervision - check local rules.)

presentation plan
Presentation Plan
  • Experiment
  • Reasons of fluid bridge formation
  • Parameters of our bridge
  • Comparison of theory and experiments
  • Other effects
  • Conclusion
experiment
Experiment

video

video

factors of fluid bridge formation
Factors of fluid bridge formation
  • Electric forces
  • Surface tension
  • Structurization of water molecules due to electric field
force acting on a fluid cylinder
Force acting on a fluid cylinder

L - Distance between beakers

L c - Bridge length

A=πR2 - Cross-section area.

E - Electric field intensity along the cylinder axis

D= εE - Electric induction (displacement)

ε - Dielectric permeability

_

_

  • Due to polarization, at the end of the cylinder appears charge equal to: ±Q.
  • In Gauss unit system:
  • (1)
  • Cylinder tension force:
  • τ =QE
  • From (1) -
  • (2)
length of the liquid cylinder
Length of the liquid cylinder

L - Distance between beakers

L c - Bridge length

A=πR2 - Cross-section area.

E - Electric field along the cylinder axis

D=εE- Electric induction (displacement)

ε - Dielectric permeability

  • ρ = 1g/cm3
  • g=980cm/sec2
  • E=10KV/cm ≈ 35 CGSE
  • ε=80
  • Weight of the bridge is Mg=ρgALc. It is compensated by tension force

Taking in account (2) and assuming that ,we get

If θ≈15◦,We get approximately L≈2cm

slide8

Shape of fluid bridge

  • Water bridge is “elastic liquid heavy rope” fixed by its ends.
  • Bridge has so called “Chain” shape.
  • Bridge “linear specific” weight is – ρgA.
  • Tension force – τ.
  • Distance between fixing points – L .
  • Heavy chain line equation is (D.Douglas, R.Thrash) :
  • (3)
  • (2)
  • Inserting (2) into (3) we get:
  • (4)
  • Maximal sag:
  • (5)
slide9

Comparison to experiment

  • We can estimate the “sag” of the bridge in our experiment:
  • L = 2cm
  • ρ = 1g/cm3
  • g=980cm/sec2
  • E=10KV/cm ≈ 35 CGSE
  • ε=80
  • In our case h ≈ 1 mm
slide10

Surface tension

Surface tension also compensates gravitational force:

Surface tension also tries to split the bridge into droplets

In case of electric field, it is energetically “favorable” for bridge surface to stay unperturbed (Aerov 2011).

For bridge stability, electric field has to be larger than critical one(Aerov 2011) :

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slide11

Structure of the bridge

Bridge structure

slide12

Various effects

  • Crawling on the wall
  • Evaporation
  • Liquid flow in beakers
  • Droplets
slide13

Crawling on the wall

In case of electric field, Bernoulli equation is as follows :

(Widom et al 2009)

  • Polarized dielectric fluid can crawl on the wall on a height equal to:
  • In our case, water can crawl on wall up to2–3 cmheight
slide14

“Droplet effect”

  • Droplet effect
slide15

Evaporation

  • Evaporation
slide17

Liquid flow in beakers

  • Liquid flows in beakers when ions are present
  • Liquid flows mainly in direction of anode, because negative ions are massive
slide18

Conclusion

  • In case of high voltage, between the beakers appears a liquid bridge
  • The main factors of fluid bridge stability are:
  • Electric forces
  • Surface tension of liquid
  • Molecular structures
  • Electric field and surface tension forces are needed for bridge not to be torn.
  • Experimental and theoretical results coincide quite well
  • There are signs ofmolecular structures
  • Observed liquid bridge oscillations
slide20

Reference

  • A. Widom, J. Swain, J. Silverberg, S. Sivasubramanian, Y. N. Srivastava. Theory of the Maxwell pressure tensor and the tension in a water bridge. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 80, 016301, 2009. p. 016301-1.
  • D.A. Douglass, R. Thrash. Sag and Tension of Conductor. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. 2006 .
  • A.Aerov. Why the Water Bridge does not collapse, Phys. Rev. E 84 (2011) 036314