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“Southeast Asia in Asia’s Regional Architecture” Amitav Achaarya Sint Sint 4013R324-4 PowerPoint Presentation
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“Southeast Asia in Asia’s Regional Architecture” Amitav Achaarya Sint Sint 4013R324-4

“Southeast Asia in Asia’s Regional Architecture” Amitav Achaarya Sint Sint 4013R324-4

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“Southeast Asia in Asia’s Regional Architecture” Amitav Achaarya Sint Sint 4013R324-4

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  1. The Strong in the World of the Weak “Southeast Asia in Asia’s Regional Architecture” Amitav Achaarya SintSint 4013R324-4 6th January 2014

  2. Contents • Introduction • Evolution of ASEAN’s role in Asian Regionalism • Debates in Regional Architecture • The US Role and its Alliances • Principles of Southeast Asian and Asian Regionalism • Conclusion

  3. Introduction ASEAN has been able to "lead" Asia Regionalism • Why ? Theoretical perspectives (Realism, Constructivism) • How? Four points

  4. Soft realism Vs Constructivism • Individual members are lack of power but collectively they acquire enough bargaining power and could influence the attention of great powers through its regional institutions • ASEAN, binding together through soft power of national identities to have the leading role in the region

  5. Logic of Soft Realism • Institutions control by weaker states, less threatening • Enjoy more legitimacy than institution created by stronger powers

  6. I. Evolution of ASEAN’ role in Asian Regionalism • Post WW II : unimportant role • During Cold War: marked the high point of ASEAN-led regionalism • Post Cold War: as a central stage in East Asian regionalism

  7. Post WW II: Asian Regionalism • pan-Asian, Afro-Asian, sub-regional (Southeast Asian), trans-Pacific (Asia-Pacific), and East Asia • India’s role: the first Asian conference: 1947- 49 • pan-Asian sentiment: Bandung Asia-African Conference in 1955 • Indonesia and Myanmar (Burma) performed initial regionalist (pan-Asian)concepts • No clear separation between South and Southeast Asia. • Sovereignty and nonintervention is symbol of early Asian regionalism

  8. During Cold War: Formation of ASEAN • 1967, founded by five original members • ASEAN’s model is informal, Non legalistic, and sovereignty-enhancing cooperation • Southeast Asian countries were cautious of dominated by "outside“ regional powers • Political and security as a major concern • Marked as the high point of ASEAN-led regionalism

  9. Post Cold War: East Asian Regionalism • APEC, ARF: new ideas of cooperative security for practical implementation • APEC, ARF: ASEAN becomes the centre stage • APT then EAS towards the final goal of East Asian Community

  10. II. Debates in Regional Architecture Cause: Asian Economic crisis of 1997 • Two Major Issues: the direction of ASEAN ASEAN reform: economic and security spheres the Role of ASEAN Broader regional institution (two main perspectives: narrower and broader _ APT Vs EAS_ inclusive and exclusive)

  11. ASEAN Reform • Economic area Thailand : flexible engagement (nonintervention issue) Singapore: ASEAN economic community (ASEAN Charter: institutionalized and legalized) • Security area Indonesia: ASEAN security community (regional human right mechanism and enshrining democracy)

  12. Broader regional institution • Two main perspectives Exclusive : Malaysia (supported by China) APT toward East Asia Community Inclusive : East Asian regionalism Open regionalism and cooperative security (Singapore & Indonesia: supported by Japan, close ties the US)

  13. ASEAN’s view: Other regional organizations • APEC : nervous on the US dominant Washington Agenda for trade liberalization • ARF: remain the driver’s seat Still vague in interest or regional issues: south china sea, Taiwan issue, Korean Peninsula Workable in transnational issues: terrorism and transnational crime

  14. III. The US Role and its Alliances • Perspectives on the US’s Role - Southeast Asian states: regional view - ASEAN members states: individual (regional friends and allies) - Intra-ASEAN differences

  15. Southeast Asian states: regional view - Limited the US interest and engagement in broader • ASEAN members: • Greatest challenges for the US indifference and dominance • the US emphasis on APEC vehicle for trade liberalization • the US ‘s regional friends and allies not embrace in the EAS • Intra-ASEAN : • difference over the US military presence during and after cold war • US bilateralism and regional ASEAN-led multilateralism

  16. IV. The Principles and Norms:Southeast Asian and Asian Regionalism • Basic Principles Reducing interstate wars Enhancing domestic stability Preventing any single outside powers • Other Principles Open and nonexclusionary regionalism Non-interference in the internal affairs of states No regional military pacts, and ASEAN leadership in regional institutions

  17. Challenges for the Principles • ASEAN accept the US military dominance : an off-shore balancer for rising China • Open regionalism was challenged among the ASEAN and non-ASEAN members (EAS, ARF and APT) • Non interference principle is more difficult to assess (within and without ASEAN)

  18. Conclusion ASEAN’s leadership has evolved, expanded, and entered a new phase toward Asian regionalism • the origin regional grouping in Asia • a bridge as Indian and Pacific oceans • rich in resources human and natural for economic globalization • the institutional platform for wider Asia Pacific and East Asian regional institutions • the centre of Asian regionalist debates and interactions over changing norms and mechanisms

  19. Institutional Dilemma • ASEAN: a state-centric, sovereignty-bounded nations (Still struggling internal and external threats itself) • Seriously mismatch between traditional institution for grasping state sovereignty Vs transnational regionalism (APT, ARF, EAS) APT= ASEAN+3 (China+S.Korea+Japan) EAS= APT+3 (India+ Australia+ New Zealand)+Papua New Guinea +Russia ARF= EAS+ US+ Canada+ EU+N.Korea+Pakistan + Bangldesh +Sri Lanka+ Mongolia + East Timor

  20. Comment - Asian regionalism: a crucial element to survive for small nations facing large and powerful countries- soft institutionalism: gradually give way to bureaucratization and legalization, but only gradually and limitedly - continues to hold driver’s seat through regional cooperation to have greater international clout rather than singular national existence and efforts. State-centric nations Exclusive APT, ARF Inclusive EAS

  21. Thank you