disorders of the integumentary system n.
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Disorders of The Integumentary System. Alopecia. Alopecia. loss of hair from the head or body “Baldness” Common Causes: aging , hair treatments, meds , anemia. Acne Vulgaris. Acne. Common & Chronic disorder of the sebaceous glands.

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alopecia1
Alopecia
  • loss of hair from the head or body
  • “Baldness”
  • Common Causes: aging, hair treatments, meds, anemia
slide5
Acne
  • Common & Chronic disorder of the sebaceous glands.
  • Cause: glands secrete excessive oil causing it to harden and plug up the opening with WBCs & causes an accumulation of pus.
  • Occurs mostly during adolescence.
  • Tx: creams, baby acne goes away on its own.
athlete s foot1
Athlete’s Foot
  • Contagious, fungal infection of the superficial layer.
  • Characterized by small blisters b/t the fingers & most often the toes.
  • Other sx: cracking and scaling.
  • Common cause is sharing a shower/bathtub.
  • Tx: Thorough cleansing/drying area plus antifungal agents/powders
dermatitis1
Dermatitis
  • Inflammation of the skin – usually nonspecific.
  • Common Causes: scented soaps, emotions, dry scalps “seborrhea dermatitis”
  • Tx: remove irritant that is causing, topical ointments
eczema1
Eczema
  • Acute or chronic, noncontagious inflammatory skin disease.
  • Sx: dry, red, itchy, and scaly skin
  • Common causes:

allergic reaction to something, excessive sunlight, ingestion of drugs, idiopathic

  • Tx: remove avoidance, topical meds (hcz cream)
herpes1
Herpes
  • Viral infection that is usually seen as a blister.
  • Go through periods of “remission” (no sx) & “outbreaks” (sx)
  • Most common types:

Herpes simplex – “fever blister “ or “cold sore”. Can be spread through oral contact.

Genital Herpes – blister in the genital area. Usually spread through sexual contact. Can infect baby if delivers during an outbreak

Herpes Zoster– “Shingles”. Skin eruption due to a virus of the nerve endings. Usually in elderly. Very painful & itchy.

impetigo1
Impetigo
  • Acute, Inflammatory, & contagious skin disease.
  • Usually in babies & young children
  • Characterized by appearance of vesicles that rupture & develop distinct yellow crusts.
  • Tx: topical antibacterial cream & oral abx.
psoriasis1
Psoriasis
  • Chronic &inflammatory characterized by development of dry reddish patches which are covered with silvery, white scales.
  • Affects elbows, knees, shins, scalp, and lower back.
  • Cause: unknown
  • Tx: none  Help itchy sx.
ringworm1
Ringworm
  • Highly contagious fungal infection
  • Raised, itchy, circular patches with crusts
  • Can occur upon the skin, scalp, and underneath nails
  • Tx: griseofulvin
scabies1
Scabies
  • very itchy skin caused by tiny mites that burrow into your skin.
  • Very contagious
  • Can also be spread by sharing towels, bed sheets, and other personal belongings.
skin lesions1
Skin Lesions
  • Macule: Localized changes in skin color, less than 1 cm (ex: freckle)
  • Papule: Solid, elevated lesion less than 1 cm
  • Pustule: Vesicles that become filled with pus (ex: acne, impetigo)
  • Vesicle: Accumulation of fluid b/t upper layers of skin (ex: herpes, chickenpox)
  • Ulcer: Depressed lesion of the epidermis and upper dermis
warts1
Warts
  • small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands
  • Common warts are caused by a virus and are transmitted by touch
  • Other types:

Plantar Warts – benign skin growths on the soles of your feet

Genital Warts - affect the moist tissues of the genital area. Caused by HPV. May look like small, flesh-colored bumps or have a cauliflower-like appearance. In many cases, the warts are too small to be visible.

skin cancer1
Skin Cancer
  • 3 main types:
  • Basal cell carcinoma – most common and least malignant. Usually on the face. Tx w/ surgical removal, cryosurgery (freezing w/ liquid nitrogen). 99% recovery rate.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma – arises from the epidermis & occurs most often on the scalp & lower lip. Grows rapidly & metastasizes to the lymph nodes. Recovery good if found early.
  • Malignant melanoma – Occurs in melanocytes. Metastasizes to other areas quickly. May appear as a brown or black irregular patch which occurs suddenly OR color/size change in preexisting wart or mole.
burns1
Burns
  • Common Causes: sun, boiling water, steam, fire, chemicals, electricity.
    • 1st degree – involve only the epidermis. Sx: redness, swelling, pain. Tx: cold water.
    • 2nd degree – involve the epidermis and dermis. Sx: Blisters, redness, pain. Tx: sterile dressing, pain meds.
    • 3rd degree – Life threatening. involve all skin layers including SQ. Sometimes no pain. Tx: prevent infection, fluid replacement.
how to determine of body burned
How to determine % of body burned
  • To approximate the percentage of burned surface area, the body has been divided into eleven sections:
  • •Head
  • •Right arm
  • •Left arm
  • •Chest
  • •Abdomen
  • •Upper back
  • •Lower back
  • •Right thigh
  • •Left thigh
  • •Right leg (below the knee)
  • •Left leg (below the knee)
  • Each of these sections takes about nine percent of the body's skin to cover it. Added all together, these sections account for 99%. The genitals make up the last one %.
  • For example, the entire left arm and the chest covered in blisters would be 18 percent. Partial areas are approximated. For example, the face is only the front half of the head and would be considered 4.5 percent.