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Mammals. Synapsid Amniotes. Diapsids and Synapsids. Diapsids are the line of reptiles and birds Synapsids are the mammal line Showed up 320 mya Lasted through Carboniferous and Permian periods Ectotherms, some with large sails No hair Egg laying Herbivores or predators.

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Mammals


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    1. Mammals Synapsid Amniotes

    2. Diapsids and Synapsids • Diapsids are the line of reptiles and birds • Synapsids are the mammal line • Showed up 320 mya • Lasted through Carboniferous and Permian periods • Ectotherms, some with large sails • No hair • Egg laying • Herbivores or predators

    3. Emergence of Therapsids • Mid-Permian period • Hindlimbs • Directly under body • Moved parallel to body • Trunk • Ribs changed • Thoracic and abdominal segments • Breathe like mammals • Predatory • Teeth at front for tearing • Elongate jaws • Herbivores • Diastema – space between front & back teeth

    4. Mass extinction • 240 mya • Siberian volcanic events • Diapsids had arisen • All but a few cynodonts were wiped out • Became smaller • Nocturnal – no color vision in many mammals • Mammal-like: hair and endothermy selected • Specialized teeth

    5. Another mass extinction • 65 mya • Dinosaurs and many ancient birds gone • Mammals can occupy dino-niches • All modern orders by end of Tertiary period

    6. Class Mammalia Hair Mammary glands Specialized teeth 3 middle ear ossicles (bones) Diaphragm Heterodont dentition Sweat, sebaceous, & scent glands 4 chambered heart Large cerebral cortex

    7. Diversity of mammals • 5,400 species • Bumblebee bat 3-4 cm to • Blue whale 30 m

    8. Subclass Prototheria • Includes Infraclass Ornithodelphia, “bird birthplace”, the monotremes • Cloaca • Oviparous (egg laying) • Controversial category

    9. Subclass Theria • Infraclass Metatheria • Marsupials • Viviparous w/short gestation time • Protective pouches • 250 species in Australia and the Americas

    10. Subclass Theria • Infraclass Eutheria • Placental mammals • Born at advanced stage of development • Exchanges across placenta • Over 4,000 species, 17 orders (see table 22.1, and others throughout chapter)

    11. Evolutionary pressures • Terrestrial on all continents but Antarctica • Live in all oceans • Many adaptations over next several slides

    12. Epidermal and dermal layers Protects against Mechanical injury Microorganisms UV rays Important in Temp regulation Sensory perception Excretion H2O regulation Skin

    13. Hair • Unique to mammals • Keratinized product of epidermis • Sits in hair follicle • Pelage – hair covering • Long protective hairs • Dense, short underlayer

    14. Hair and molting • Hair = dead skin cells, must be molted • Some occurs gradually • Some have winter/summer coats • Thickness • Color (arctic fox)

    15. Hair and touch • Displacement of hair stimulates nerves • Especially legs, arms, mouth, eyes • Guard hairs – vibrissae

    16. Hair defense • Air spaces provide insulation • Arrector pili, smooth muscle around hair • Makes hair stand up • When threatened • Animal looks larger & tougher

    17. Hair color • How much melanin? • Dark on top • Light on bottom • Aposematic colors – skunk

    18. Reduced pelage • Hot climates • Aquatic animals • Naked mole rats

    19. Claws • Present in all amniotes • Keratin over ends of digits • Can be nails or hooves

    20. Sebaceous (oil) glands – lubricate and waterproof Sudoriferous (sweat) glands Evaporative cooling Salt, urea, water (stank) Scent or musk glands Defense Species/mate recognition Territorial behavior Glands

    21. Mammary glands • Functional in females • Present/nonfunctional in males • Secrete milk (water, carbs, fat, protein, minerals, antibodies) • Monotremes excrete milk into “belly bowls”

    22. Skull • Reptiles – jaw articulates at 2 small bones • Mammals • Bones have moved to middle ear • Jaw articulates at lower jaw bone

    23. Sophisticated palate • Hard palate at roof of mouth developed 2x • In archosaurs • In therapsids • In mammals, 2ndary palate further separates mouth & nasal passages • Breathe while chewing • Stop to swallow

    24. Reptiles – homodont or all the same Mammals heterodont with different functions Set in sockets 2 sets Four kinds Incisors Canines Premolars molars Teeth

    25. Specialized dentition • Reduced dentition – armadillos & anteaters • Omnivorous lives • Grinding herbivores • Gnawing rodents • Diastema • Eat close to ground • Tearing carnivores

    26. Vertebral column • Five regions • 2 cervical vertebrae – atlas and axis • Giraffe and whale both have 7 neck vertebrae • Tree sloth has 6 or 9 cervical vertebrae • Thoracic region • Ribs • Freedom of motion • Lumbar region - support

    27. Legs & hips • Appendages under body • Move along anteroposterior plane • Bones of pelvic girdle fused • Advantage for locomotion • Disadvantage for birthing

    28. Muscles • Skeleton supports weight • Muscles concentrated in upper appendages • Running animals have less muscle in lower legs

    29. Feeding • Digestive tract similar to other vertebrates • Specialized for varied feeding • Order Carnivora – carnivores or omnivores • Insectivores – eat arthropods and soft inverts • Herbivores – eat plants & inverts on plants

    30. Digestion • Rodents have a fermentation pouch or cecum • between small & large intestine • Aids digestion of cellulose • Ruminants – sheep, cattle, and deer • 4 chambered stomach • 1st 3 are fermentation chambers • Microorganisms make cellulose digesting enzymes • Cud

    31. Circulation • Bird & mammal hearts – convergent evolution • Placental Exchange • Maternal and fetal blood never mix • Nutrients, gases, and wastes exchange • Fetal lungs inflated at birth

    32. Gas Exchange • High metabolic rates need efficient gas exchange • Long snouts warm & moisten air • Lungs like sponges

    33. Gas Exchange • Inspire w/negative pressure • Contract diaphragm • Expand chest • Expire 2 ways • Elastic recoil • Contraction of thoracic & abdominal muscles

    34. Thermoregulation • Shivering thermogenesis • little movement • Lots of heat • Non-shivering thermogenesis • Cellular metabolism • Metabolism of brown fat

    35. Insulated w/pelage No pelage Lower surface temperature Walruses Appendages w/fur Too much heat dissipate Too cold Tuck in appendages Conserve heat Making heat

    36. Other systems • Cooler veins are warmed by nearby arteries • Evaporative cooling • Big ears dissipate heat

    37. Winter sleep Retreat to burrows Slow down, but easily roused Bears and raccoons Hibernation Monotremes, rodents, bats Body temp, respiration, heart rate, metabolism all drop May lose 1/3 – 1/2 of body weight Winter sleep vs. hibernation

    38. Nervous system • Integrated systems move to brain • Sense of touch – hair follicles • Olfaction – smell food, peers, predators • Auditory senses • 3 middle ear ossicles • High sensitivity to pitch • Vision • Overall weak color vision • Squirrel, primates, & some others see color

    39. Excretion • Mammals excrete urea • Less toxic than ammonia • Requires some water • Urine thicker than blood • 2x in beavers • 22x in Australian hopping mice

    40. Water loss • Depends on activity, physiological state, temperature • Lost in urine, feces, sweat, nursing • Kangaroo rat does not drink • Dry feces • Low protein diet • Metabolism makes water

    41. Behavior • Varied • Cat with arched back • Dog wagging tail • Wolf on its back

    42. Smell and Behavior • Pheromones • Recognize parents and young • Breed • Urinate on self • Skunks

    43. Herd behavior • Stay calm if familiar sounds continue • Bleating • Breaking twigs • Stomach rumblings

    44. Tactile communication • Primates • Nosing • Grooming • Keeps pelage clean • Reinforces social relationships

    45. Territoriality • Mammals mark territory • Your cat isn’t nice • This is not cute  • Sea lions

    46. Reproduction • Viviparity • Requires energy • Not tied to a nest • Uterus modified to nourish fetus • Care for young

    47. Cycles • Beneficial time to reproduce • Temperature • Rainfall • Available food • All subject to cycles

    48. Cycles • Estrus cycle • Behaviorally and physiologically keen to mate • Release of mature ova • Monestrus, diestrus, polyestrus • Delays • Delayed fertilization – bats • Embryonic diapause

    49. Development • Monotremes • Oviparous • Shell glands deposit shell • Incubate eggs in ventral pouch • Lay eggs in burrow

    50. Pre-placental mammals • Marsupials • Uterine milk • Vascular yolk sac – early placenta • 8 – 40 day gestation • Another 60 – 270 days in pouch