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Risk Assessment For Invasive Aquatic Plants. Reuben Keller & David Lodge. Presentation to: Invasive Plant Species Assessment Working Group Indianapolis, Nov. 30, 2004. Overview. Invasive aquatic plants in Indiana Impacts Sources Regulations Reducing the impacts

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Risk Assessment For Invasive Aquatic Plants

Reuben Keller & David Lodge

Presentation to: Invasive Plant Species Assessment Working Group Indianapolis, Nov. 30, 2004


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Overview

  • Invasive aquatic plants in Indiana

    • Impacts

    • Sources

    • Regulations

    • Reducing the impacts

  • Species available through watergarden and aquarium trades

  • Statistical risk assessment for invasive aquatic plants in the Midwest


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Invasion Process

Species Elsewhere

In Pathway

e.g. imported for trade

Introduced

Reproducing

Established

Ecological &/or

Economic impacts

Invasive


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Invasive Aquatic Plants In Indiana

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is established across IN

Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) is established in 175 lakes and reservoirs, and many waterways

Curly-leafed pondweed (Potamogeton crispus)

~$803,000 spent each year just on herbicide control

More spent on biocontrol

Value of lost opportunities (boating, fishing etc.) not estimated


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Sources

  • Watergardening (e.g. purple loosestrife)

  • Aquariums (e.g. Eurasian watermilfoil, curly-leafed pondweed)

  • Landscaping, erosion control (e.g. reed canary-grass Phalaris arundinacea)


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IN Regulations

  • Federal noxious weed list (19 species) + Lythrum

    • Azolla pinnata (mosquito fern)

    • Caulerpa taxifolia (Mediterranean clone)

    • Eichornia azurea (anchored waterhyacinth)

    • Hydrilla verticillata

    • Hygrophila polysperma (Miramar weed)

    • Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach)

    • Lagarosiphon major (Moss)

    • Limnophila sessiflora (ambulia)

    • Melaleuca quenquinervia

    • Monachoria hastata

    • Monochoria vaginalis

    • Ottelia alismoides

    • Sagittaria sagittifolia (arrowhead)

    • Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)

    • Salvinia biloba (giant salvinia)

    • Salvinia herzogii (giant salvinia)

    • Salvinia molesta (giant salvinia)

    • Solanum tampicense (wetland nightshade)

    • Sparganium erectum (exotic bur-reed)


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Reducing The Impacts

Invasion Steps

Options

Effective?

Species Elsewhere

×

Prevention – exclude species of concern

Yes

Introduced

Insure no propagules can escape cultivation

Unlikely

Established

Unlikely – requires surveys and funds on hand

Rapid response - eliminate populations while small

Invasive

Mitigate damage, control spread, eradicate if possible

Eradication usually impossible, control is expensive


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Reducing The Impacts

Invasion Steps

Options

Effective?

Species Elsewhere

Prevention – exclude species of concern

Yes

Introduced

×

Insure no propagules can escape cultivation

Unlikely

Established

Unlikely – requires surveys and funds on hand

Rapid response - eliminate populations while small

Invasive

Mitigate damage, control spread, eradicate if possible

Eradication usually impossible, control is expensive


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Reducing The Impacts

Invasion Steps

Options

Effective?

Species Elsewhere

Prevention – exclude species of concern

Yes

Introduced

Insure no propagules can escape cultivation

Unlikely

Established

×

Unlikely – requires surveys and funds on hand

Rapid response - eliminate populations while small

Invasive

Mitigate damage, control spread, eradicate if possible

Eradication usually impossible, control is expensive


Reducing the impacts10 l.jpg
Reducing The Impacts

Invasion Steps

Options

Effective?

Species Elsewhere

Prevention – exclude species of concern

Yes

Introduced

Insure no propagules can escape cultivation

Unlikely

Established

Unlikely – requires surveys and funds on hand

Rapid response - eliminate populations while small

Invasive

Mitigate damage, control spread, eradicate if possible

Eradication usually impossible, control is expensive


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Summary: Part 1

  • Invasive aquatic plants have significant ecological and economic impacts in Indiana

  • Most are intentionally introduced

  • Current regulations are inadequate

  • Preventing introduction is the best way to prevent future impacts


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2. Species Available

  • What species are available?

    • Buy and identify organisms

  • What risks are posed?

    • Spread of known invaders

    • Introduction of new invaders



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Risks Posed - Plants

  • Availability of known invasives

    • 45% of US restricted plants available over web

    • Eurasian watermilfoil, curly-leafed pondweed, water chestnut and many more invasive, or potentially invasive, species

  • Misidentifications

    • 40% of Linnean names incorrect

    • Ambiguous common names


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Contaminants

  • 5 snail species

  • 1 crustacean species

  • 2 insect species

  • duckweed (Lemna sp.)


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Summary: Species Available

  • Watergarden and aquarium trades are spreading potential and known invaders

  • Plants are often incorrectly identified by vendors

  • Plant trade is a vector for the transfer of many contaminant species


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Overall Conclusions

  • Invasive aquatic plant species are a significant economic and ecological problem in Indiana

  • Preventing introduction is the best way to stop further damages

  • Many actually or potentially invasive species are being spread through trades

  • Risk assessment is possible and accurate