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Amphibians. What are amphibians?. Vertebrates Tetrapods (“four feet”) Ectothermic “both ways of life” Special amphibious traits: Respiration through skin Some amphibians are lung-less Metamorphosis. Amphibian Orders. Order Urodela Order Anura Order Apoda. Order Urodela.

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what are amphibians
What are amphibians?
  • Vertebrates
  • Tetrapods (“four feet”)
  • Ectothermic
  • “both ways of life”
  • Special amphibious traits:
    • Respiration through skin
    • Some amphibians are lung-less
  • Metamorphosis
amphibian orders
Amphibian Orders
  • Order Urodela
  • Order Anura
  • Order Apoda
order urodela
Order Urodela
  • Includes salamanders & newts
  • Have elongated bodies with a tail & four limbs 
  • Smooth, moist skin for cutaneous respiration
  • Less able to stay on dry land than anurans
order urodela1
Order Urodela
  • Size from a few centimeters long to 1.5 meters
  • Nocturnal when live in drier areas
  • Lay eggs in water or damp soil
  • Some bear live young
  • May or may not go through tadpole stage (some hatch & look like small adult)
order anura
Order Anura
  • Both terrestrial & freshwater species
  • Tadpole with tail, gills, & two-chambered heart
  • Adults without a tail, four limbs, & lungs
  • Frog skin smooth & moist for cutaneous respiration, while toads is rough & warty (poison glands)
  • Long hind limbs for jumping
  • Long, forked tongue hinged at front of mouth
order apoda
Order Apoda
  • Includes caecilians
  • Tropical, burrowing,worm like amphibians
  • Legless
  • Small eyes & often blind
  • Eat worms & other invertebrates
  • Average length 30 centimeters, but can grow up to 1.3 meters
  • Internal fertilization
  • Female bear live young
feeding
Feeding
  • Larvae: mostly herbivores
  • Adults: mostly carnivores
external amphibian anatomy
External Amphibian Anatomy
  • External nares
  • Tympanic membrane – cover ear
  • Nictitating Membrane – transparent eyelid
  • Upper and lower eye lid
  • Trunk
  • Head
  • Forelimb
  • Hindlimb
slide10

External nares

Tympanic membrane

Nictitating Membrane

Upper and lower eye lid

Trunk

Head

Forelimb

Hindlimb

other external features
Other external features
  • Webbed feet
  • Lack of claws
  • Layout of the “hands” can differ
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Very similar layout to human skeleton
  • Head, trunk, limbs
  • Lack of rib cage
skeletal system1
Skeletal System
  • Skull
  • Scapula
  • Radioulna
  • Humerus
  • Vertebrae
  • Tibiofibula
  • Femur
  • Tarsus
  • Metatarsus
  • Carpus
  • Metacarpus
  • Phalanges
  • *Urostyle
skeletal system2
Skeletal System
  • Skull
  • Scapula
  • Radioulna
  • Humerus
  • Vertebrae
  • Tibiofibula
  • Femur
  • Tarsus
  • Metatarsus
  • Carpus
  • Metacarpus
  • Phalanges
  • *Urostyle
muscular system
Muscular System
  • Submaxillary
  • Control of the Forelimbs:
    • Deltoid
    • Latissimusdorsi
    • Pectoralis
  • Obliques
  • Recuts abdominus
  • Linea Alba
  • Within Hindlegs:
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Triceps femoris
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Tongue sticky, forked, & hinged at front of mouth so can be extended out to catch insects
  • Can pull eyes inward to help swallow food
  • Two, sharp, backward-pointing  vomerine teeth in roof of mouth help prevent prey from escaping
  • Maxillary teeth line the edge of the upper jaw
digestive system1
Digestive System
  • Alimentary canal (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, and cloaca) is where food is digested, absorbed & wastes eliminated
  • Stomach breaks down food
  • Pyloric sphincter muscle controls movement of food from stomach into first part of small intestine called duodenum
digestive system2
Digestive System
  • Small intestine
    • First region: duodenum
    • Held together by mesentery
  • Accessory Organs:
    • Liver makes bile to digest fats
      • stored in gall bladder
    • Pancreas
digestive system3
Digestive System
  • Wastes collect in large intestine
  • Move into cloaca along with eggs, sperm, & urine until they leave body through the anus
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Differs between larvae and adult
  • Larvae: use gills and skin
  • Adult: lungs, some skin
    • Many salamanders have no lungs
    • Glottis – connection between the nose and the bronchii
    • Bronchii – connect glottis to lungs
circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Need more oxygen to burn increased amount of food needed to live on land
  • Spleen
  • More complex circulatory system
  • Double loop blood circulation
    • pulmonary from heart to lungs
    • systemic from heart to rest of body
circulatory system1
Circulatory System
  • 3 chamber heart
    • Left atrium
    • Right atrium
    • Ventricle
circulatory system2
Circulatory System
  • Anterior vena cava - from anterior portion of body to heart
  • Posterior vena cava – from posterior portion of body to heart
  • Sinus venosus– both vena cava join to enter heart (right atrium)
  • Blood moves from right atrium to ventricle
  • From ventricle to lungs through the pulmonary arteries
circulatory system3
Circulatory System
  • Blood moves from lungs back to the heart through the pulmonary veins
  • Pulmonary veins empty into the left atrium
  • Left atrium pumps into ventricle.
  • Ventricle leads to conusarteriosus
  • Conusarteriosus– large artery leading from heart to the body
nervous system
Nervous System
  • Relatively well developed
    • Brain is larger
nervous system1
Nervous System
  • Olfactory lobes
  • Cerebrum behind olfactory lobes controls muscles
  • Pineal Gland - produces hormones
  • Optic lobes
  • Cerebellumcontrols balance & coordination
  • Medulla oblongata controls heart rate & breathing
  • Cranial nerves connect brain & spinal cord, while spinal nerves branch off the spinal cord to muscles & sensory receptors
excretory system
Excretory System
  • Kidneys – separate liquid waste from blood
    • Urinary Ducts  bladder  cloaca
  • On the kidneys: Adrenal Gland
    • Produces adrenaline
reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • External fertilization
  • Seasonal – spring
  • Females lay eggs in water
  • Males deposit sperm over eggs
reproductive system1
Reproductive System
  • Male:
    • Testes
    • Seminal vesicles
  • Female:
    • Ovaries
    • Oviducts
other adaptations
Other adaptations
  • Dormancy during unfavorable environmental conditions
  • Hibernate during cold months
    • Many fat bodies throughout abdomen for energy during hibernation
sexual dimorphism
Sexual Dimorphism
  • Physical characteristics differ between male and female
  • “Hands” of frogs are different between male and female
    • Male: larger “thumb”
  • Males: vocal sacs
    • Mating calls
    • Show dominance
day 1
Day 1:
  • Pre lab quiz
  • Group assignments
    • Put your name on an index card
    • I will pick 2 or 3 pieces of paper for each group
    • The person you are picked with is your lab partner.
  • External anatomy of the frog
    • Sketch all external anatomy
    • Open mouth and sketch/label
  • After the external anatomy: frog metamorphosis activity
growth and development
Growth and Development
  • Larva
  • Metamorphosis
  • Adult
day 2
Day 2:
  • Internal Anatomy
    • Open up the frog and observe/sketch each system
    • Sketch overall internal structure
    • Be sure to notice:
      • Digestive system
      • Urogenital system (kidneys with reproductive organs)
      • Respiratory structures