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TLSE 456/7. Overview of Disabilities Under IDEA. Learning Disabilities. IDEA Definition. “ a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language… (Psychological processes are memory, perception, attention, etc.). continued.

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tlse 456 7

TLSE 456/7

Overview of Disabilities

Under

IDEA

idea definition
IDEA Definition
  • “ a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language… (Psychological processes are memory, perception, attention, etc.)
continued
continued
  • that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math calculations…”
discrepancy
Discrepancy
  • Compare IQ level on IQ test with achievement test scores (historically)
  • New approach: RTI (responsiveness to intervention) (IDEA, 2004)
some characteristics
Some Characteristics
  • Difficulty in understanding and following directions
  • Short attention span
  • Difficulty with handwriting and fine motor skills
  • Visual or auditory memory
  • Memorizing words or basic math facts
  • Difficulty allocating time and organizing work
some characteristics1
Some Characteristics
  • Difficulty in understanding and following directions
  • Short attention span
  • Difficulty with handwriting and fine motor skills
  • Visual or auditory memory
  • Memorizing words or basic math facts
  • Difficulty allocating time and organizing work
communication disorders1
Communication Disorders

involves

Speech Language

speech disorder
Speech Disorder
  • Difficulty producing sounds as well as distortions in voice quality or fluency of speech
language disorder
Language Disorder
  • Difficulty receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information
speech language pathologists
Speech Language Pathologists
  • Assesses speech and language
  • Provides therapy
  • Act as consultant to others
  • Monitor progress
slide14
IDEA
  • “Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning existing with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period (before 18”…
mental functioning
Mental Functioning
  • Mild IQ 50 – 70 or 75
  • Moderate IQ 35 – 49
  • Severe IQ 20 – 34
  • Profound IQ <20
adaptive behavior
Adaptive Behavior
  • Skills learned by people in order to function in everyday life
tbi idea definition
TBI – IDEA Definition
  • “Acquired injury to the brain caused by an external force that adversely affects a child’s educational performance and results in partial functional disability, psychosocial impairment or both….”
tbi can be due to
TBI can be due to…..
  • Closed Injury
  • Open Injury
areas typically affected
Areas Typically Affected
  • Cognition
  • Language
  • Memory
  • Attention
  • Reasoning
  • Abstract Thinking
  • Judgment
  • Information Processing
  • Speech
possible physical changes
Possible Physical Changes
  • Nothing to serious
  • 20% - Seizures; often subside
  • Spasticity or paralysis
  • Coordination problems
  • Physical weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Some strength resumes as brain heals
physical changes continued
Physical Changes continued
  • Headaches
  • Visual/hearing issues
  • Changes in senses
possible cognitive changes
Possible Cognitive Changes
  • Comprehension
  • Problem solving
  • Concentration
  • Long and short term memory
  • Information processing
  • Poor judgment
possible linguistic changes
Possible Linguistic Changes
  • Receptive language
  • Written language
  • Aphasia (inability to use language appropriately)
  • Word finding issues
  • Most speech and expression skills are regained
possible social behavioral and personality changes
Possible Social, Behavioral, and Personality Changes
  • Temper outbursts
  • Euphoria
  • Restlessness
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • 15-25% struggle with depression
  • Poor self-monitoring skills
very low incidence disabilities
Very Low Incidence Disabilities
  • Multiple-Severe disabilities
  • Deaf blindness
multiple severe
Multiple - Severe
  • Often cognitive, sensory, and physical disabilities
  • Focus on functional skills
  • Require supports throughout life, usually
  • Group homes
  • Living longer
deaf blindness
Deaf blindness
  • Often some residual hearing or vision
  • Need considerable supports
  • Often have additional disabilities
  • Less frequently in general education
  • Communication and functional skills
physical or orthopedic impairments

Physical or Orthopedic Impairments

Amputation

Cerebral Palsy

Juvenile Arthritis

  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Spina Bifida
  • Spinal Chord Injury
orthopedic impairments idea
Orthopedic Impairments (IDEA)
  • Also called physical impairments or physical disabilities
  • IDEA definition emphasizes causes
    • Congenital (born)
    • Disease (TB)
    • Other causes (CP, amputations, burns)
physical impairments
Physical Impairments
  • Neuromotor Impairments (cause is CNS-brain and spinal cord)
  • Muscular/Skeletal conditions (cause not neurological)
neuromotor impairments
Neuromotor Impairments
  • CP – Cerebral Palsy
  • MS – Multiple Sclerosis
  • MD – Muscular Dystrophy
  • Seizure disorders – (i.e., epilepsy)
  • Spinal cord disorders – (i.e., spina bifida)
definitions of visual impairments
Definitions of Visual Impairments
  • Visual Impairments

- vision cannot be primary learning channel

  • Partially Sighted

-some useful vision – person may see colors and figures with blurring

-vision between 20/70 and 20/200

  • Legal definition: any of the following

-only reads first E with both eyes

-20/200 vision with glasses

-tunnel vision (less than 20 degrees)

definitions continued
Definitions Continued
  • IDEA-an impairment in vision that even with corrections, adversely affects educational performance.
    • Functionally blind-uses Braille but has vision for environmental tasks.
    • Low vision-can read with magnification or environmental modification
    • Totally blind-must use tactual and auditory learning, no meaningful input through vision.
definitions continued1
Definitions Continued
  • IDEA-an impairment in vision that even with corrections, adversely affects educational performance.
    • Functionally blind-uses Braille but has vision for environmental tasks.
    • Low vision-can read with magnification or environmental modification
    • Totally blind-must use tactual and auditory learning, no meaningful input through vision.
slide39
Insistence on sameness; resistance to change

Difficulty expressing needs; uses gestures or points instead of words

Repeats words in phrases in place of normal language

Laughs, cry, shows distress for reasons not apparent to others

Prefers to be alone, withdrawn

TRAITS

autism characteristics con t
Autism (characteristics) con’t
  • Unresponsive to normal teaching methods
  • Sustained odd play
  • Spins objects/ repetitive actions
  • Inappropriate attachments to objects
  • Difficulty relating with others and situations
  • May not want to cuddle or be cuddled
  • Tantrums
slide41

MORE TRAITS

  • Resists learning
  • Resists change in routine
  • Apparent over-sensitivity or under-sensitivity to pain
  • No real fears of danger
autism more traits
Autism---more traits
  • Noticeable physical over-activity or extreme under-activity
  • Uneven gross/ fine motor skills
  • Not responsive to verbal cues; acts as if deaf although tests in normal range
  • Little or no eye contact
emotional behavioral disorders
Emotional/Behavioral Disorders
  • Difficulty with interpersonal relationships
  • Inappropriate behavior under normal circumstances
  • General unhappy mood
  • Physical symptoms associated with fears
  • Inability to learn not due to intellectual, health, or sensory factors
definition of other health impairments
Definition of other health impairments
  • Having limited strength, vitality, or alertness including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that result in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment
  • May be chronic (develops slowly and has long lasting symptoms) or acute (develops quickly and has symptoms that are intense but do not last long)
examples
Examples
  • Asthma
  • AD/HD
  • Diabetes
  • Leukemia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Others
    • For IDEA the condition must adversely affect a child’s educational performance or it falls under the 504 plan.