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On Network Coding Based Multirate Video Streaming in Directed Networks. Chenguang Xu and Yinlong Xu University of Science and Technology of China. Outline. Multirate Video streaming About Network coding Related works Without network coding With network coding My work Future work.

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on network coding based multirate video streaming in directed networks

On Network Coding Based Multirate Video Streaming in Directed Networks

Chenguang Xu and Yinlong Xu

University of Science and Technology of China

outline
Outline
  • Multirate Video streaming
  • About Network coding
  • Related works
    • Without network coding
    • With network coding
  • My work
  • Future work
multirate video streaming
Multirate Video Streaming
  • Property of Internet
    • Heterogeneity of Receivers
  • Approaches:
    • The replicated stream approach
    • Cumulative Layer approach, Such as MPEGx (Layered Coding)
    • Non-cumulative Layer approach, Such as MDC
what is network coding
What is Network Coding?
  • Transmission with network coding
    • Packet level encoding at intermediate nodes
    • Decoding at receivers
  • The common method of network coding
    • Linear Coding

E.g. 2a+3b

an example network coding
a

a

a

b

b

b

An example -Network Coding

T1

F1

T2

?

S

a+b

F2

F3

T3

the advantages of network coding in multicasting cont
The advantages of Network Coding in Multicasting cont

Advantages:

Throughput, Delay,

Disadvantages:

Packets Overhead(3%)

Encoding/Decoding Time It depends…

related works streaming without network coding
Related works-Streaming Without Network Coding
  • Layered multicast streaming without

network coding

Rate allocation for each layer

Fairness Issues

Adaptive layer receiving

related works streaming with network coding
Related works-Streaming With Network Coding
  • Layered streaming with network coding

“On multirate multicast streaming using network coding” Allerton05

Encode the packets of different layers

Objective: Maximize the total rates of receivers

Weakness: May cause ineffective transmission. Receiving

higher layers while missing some lower layers .

my work the unachievability of network coding for streaming
My work-The Unachievabilityof Network Coding for Streaming

Layer1 {a, c}

Layer2 {b, d}

2 time units as a generation

{a, b, c, d}

?

k1*a+k2*b+k3*c+k4*d

m1*a+m2*b+m3*c+m4*d

layer1

k1*a+k2*b+k3*c+k4*d

m1*a+m2*b+m3*c+m4*d

layer1

Streaming

Conventional Content Distribution

For T1 and T2

problem descriptions
Problem Descriptions

The Model

  • Directed Networks G(V,E,c)
  • a set of layers {Layer 1, Layer 2,…Layer k} , with a fixed rate rm for layer m
  • R is the receivers’ set

Objective : Maximizing the total layers received

basic assumptions
Basic Assumptions
  • Each encoding generation occupying Δ consecutivetime units.
  • The buffer is large enough and the link state is stable.
  • Acyclic network
  • Fixed rate for each layer
the coding scheme lsnc
The Coding Scheme- LSNC
  • Layered Separated Network Coding
  • The Advantages of LSNC

The advantage of network coding

Layer Separated for different priorities of layers

Needn’t to pad the shorter packets with 0s

the coding scheme lsnc cont
The Coding Scheme- LSNC cont

The remaining problems:

  • How to determine the layer for each receiver?
  • How to allocate bandwidth for each layer?
  • How to achieve the rate of each layer?

By existed networkcoding algorithm

optimal layer separated network coding
Optimal Layer Separated Network Coding

OLSNC: Jointly Solve 1 and 2.

olsnc an example
S is the source. T1 and T2 are receivers.

The stream is consisted of 3 layers-L1, L2, L3, with rate of 1, 1, 1 respectively.

{L3}

{L1}

{L2}

{L2}

{L1}

OLSNC-An example

By OLSNC, T1 can get 2 layers, and T2 can get 3 layers.

olsnc an example1
OLSNC-An example

Without Network Coding:

Optimal Multicast Sub-graph: T1 : 2 layers

T2 : 2 layers

Optimal Multicast Tree: T1 : 1 layer

T2 : 2 layers

discussion on olsnc
Discussion on OLSNC
  • Optimal result for LSNC
  • High Computing Complexity

E.g. 15 receivers, 5 layers, worst cast

execution time is over 1 hour

  • A time efficient algorithm is needed
sub optimal layer separated network coding
Sub-optimal Layer Separated Network Coding

Main Idea:

1) Allocate the bandwidth for each layer from low to high,

with the objective of maximizing the aggregated maxflows of receivers for rest higher layers.

2) Achieve the multicast rate for each layer with the bandwidth allocated by existed network coding algorithm.

performance evaluation
Performance Evaluation

Simulation Environments

V= {v0, v1,…v10}, R={v1, v2,…v10}

Two topologies: E1={(vi,vj)| i < j }, E2=((vi,vj)| 0 < j−i ≤ 2 }

Two layer rate allocation schemes: Flat and Exponential Scheme

Performance metrics:

AC(Vi) is the actual number of layers received by vi

OL(vi) is the maximum number of layers permitted by maxflow

slide22
Simulation Results

E1, Exponential Scheme

E1, Flat Scheme

simulation results
Simulation Results

E2, Flat Scheme

E2, Exponential Scheme

The advantage is more obvious in E1, with Exponential Scheme.

simulation results cont
Simulation Results cont

The comparison of LRR

future works
Future Works
  • In undirected networks
  • Distributed Network Coding Scheme
  • Fairness problem
  • Layered P2P Streaming Using Network Coding
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