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Employees Development. UHS 2062 LECTURES for UTM students Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok June 2011 srsiwok@gmail.com. Introduction.

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employees development

Employees Development

UHS 2062 LECTURES for UTM students

Prepared by SitiRokiahSiwok

June 2011


  • Training is the “systematic acquisition of skills, rules, concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance” (Goldstein & Ford, 2002 in Aamodt, 2007).
  • Training can also be defined as “an organized efforts by an organization to provide employees with structured opportunities to learn and to develop within their work-roles”(Arnold, 2005).
the importance of training
The Importance of Training
  • For new employees.
  • When the organization is in difficulty in finding applicants for the job; training compensates for the inability for the desired applicants.
  • Job change
  • Change within the employees.
  • Arrival of new tools or technologies within the organization.
  • “There is always room for improvement”.
the importance of training1
The Importance of Training
  • Training is recognized to be very important; organizations put priority to it by allocating a substantial amount of the organization’s budget.
  • Considered central to an organization.
  • Some organization goes to the extent of putting training as one of the organization mission’s statement (Aamodt, 2007).
  • Paying high wages to trainers.
the importance of training2
The Importance of Training
  • Training and development has the potential to benefit individuals , organizations and society as a whole.
  • Consequence of training : employees can develop skills , increase promotion opportunities , participate in various organization’s activities and has “career mobility”.
  • Skilled workers work faster and paid more attention to safety; thus less mistakes and produce high-quality works.
  • Economic competitiveness is skill-based related.
the training cycle an overview
The training cycle: an overview

(Arnold, 2005, pg 359 )

determining training needs
Determining Training Needs
  • The first step is to a conduct needs analysis (Noe, 2005 in Aamodt, 2007) .
  • The purpose of needs analysis is to :
    • To determine types of training needed by the organization.
    • To ascertain the extent to which the training is the means to achieve the organizational goals.
needs analysis
Needs Analysis
  • Typical needs analysis include:
    • Organizational analysis
    • Task analysis
    • Person analysis

(Goldstein & Ford, 2002 in Aamodt, 2007)

organizational analysis oa
Organizational Analysis (OA)
  • The purpose of OA is to determine those organizational factors that either facilitate or inhibit training effectiveness.
  • Examples of inhibiting organizational factors:
    • Not enough money to fund the training
    • Cannot afford employees to be away for training,
    • Personnels not wishing to train employees (as they tend to leave the organization after a short period of time).
organizational analysis oa1
Organizational Analysis (OA)
  • Proper OA will focus :
    • On the goals the organization wants to achieve.
    • The extent the training will help achieve the goals.
    • The organization’s ability to conduct training.
    • The extent to which the employees are willing and able to be trained (survey of employees readiness may be included).

(McCabe, 2001 in Aamodt, 2007)

task analysis ta
Task analysis (TA)
  • TA is done after the organizational analysis shows that a positive organizational climate for training exists.
  • Using the job analysis method, TA identifies :
    • the tasks performed by each employee.
    • The conditions under which these tasks are performed.
    • The competencies needed to perform the tasks under the indentified conditions.
task analysis ta1
Task Analysis (TA)
  • If the job analysis has been properly done, and the job descriptions have been detailed, the TA would be fairly easy and does not take much time.
  • If the job analysis has not been done, the TA process can be expensive and time consuming.
  • Once the task and competencies for a job have been indentified, the next step is to determine how employees learn to perform each task or obtain each competency.
task analysis ta2
Task Analysis (TA)
  • TA is usually done by listing tasks in one column and how tasks are learned in a second column.
  • See example in the next slide.
  • The TA in the example shows that there is a need to develop training courses in dealing with difficult customers and in cross-selling.
person analysis
Person Analysis
  • The third and final step in the needs analysis process is determining which employees need training and in which areas.
  • Person analysis is based on the premise that not every employee needs further training for every task performed.
  • To determine the individual training needs for each employee, person analysis utilizes performance analysis scores, surveys, interviews, skills and knowledge tests and /or critical incidents techniques.
person analysis using performance appraisal scores
Person Analysis: Using Performance Appraisal Scores
  • This is the easiest method as low ratings on a dimension for most employees indicates the need for training.

Performance appraisal however scores has three disadvantages:

    • Rating errors which reduces accuracy.
    • Making the wrong conclusion by examining the “average”.
    • If not specific enough the performance appraisal score will not provide useful information.
person analysis surveys
Person Analysis: Surveys
  • A survey is another common approach to determine the training needs ; which offers several advantages , such as:
    • Eliminate performance rating errors
    • Giving opportunity for employees to self rate (assumption: employees know their strengths and weaknesses best)
    • In cases where effective performance appraisal system and adequate job descriptions are not available, surveys can provides information to determine training needs.
person analysis surveys1
Person analysis: surveys
  • The main disadvantages of surveys:
    • Employees may not be honest.
    • The organization may not be able to afford the training as suggested by the employees.
person analysis interviews
Person analysis: interviews
  • Interview is another method in needs analysis .
  • Usually done with selected number of employees, yielding in-depth answers to questions regarding training needs (Patton & Pratt 2002 in Aamodt, 2007).
  • The main advantage with interviews is that it will reveal more clearly the needs than with survey approach.
  • Data obtained from interviews can analyzed using the various qualitative methods of data analysis. Various softwares are currently available such as Nvivo and Atlas.ti
person analysis skills and knowledge test
Person analysis: Skills and knowledge test
  • Skills and knowledge test is another way of determining training needs.
  • Examples : knowledge of lending laws for loan officers, knowledge of company policies for new employees etc.
  • If employees score poorly, that means there is a need for training as a whole ; or if only a few employees score poorly, then there is a need for individualized training.
  • The challenge for using this method to determine training needs is the availability of test.
person analysis critical incidents techniques cit
Person Analysis: Critical incidents Techniques (CIT)
  • CIT is not a common method used to determine training needs.
  • First developed and used by John Flanagan and his students in late 1940 and early 1950.
  • CIT is used to discover actual incidents of job behaviors that make a difference between successful and unsuccessful performance.
  • Advantage: It is relatively easy to use especially if a proper job analysis is available.
  • Drawback: As CIT emphasis on the difference between excellent and poor performance, routine duties tend to be overlooked.
training design
Training Design
  • Training design is the second component in the training cycle.
  • Training design relates to the content of the training program including the information presented to the trainees and the methods of how the information to be conveyed.
  • As training is designed to bring about changes in people’s behavior through acquisition of knowledge and skills, thus how training is delivered is crucial.
training design methods
Training Design : Methods
  • Training methods includes :
    • Training media (lecture, or video or computer etc ).
    • Where the learning takes place (in a lecture hall? Or in learners’ homes? etc.)
    • Sequencing of the materials.
training approach
Training Approach
  • It is important to understand how people learn; therefore the need to understand learning theories.
  • Learning theories represent ideas about how learning occurs and provides directions within training practices by identifying the most appropriate methods of instructions (Arnold, 2005).
learning theories
Learning Theories
  • There is no single universally accepted theory for learning process(Arnold, 2005);
  • However, regardless of perspectives, theories share several instructional commonalities that enhance learning(Schunk, 2008) :
    • Learners progress through stages or phases
    • Material should be organized and presented in small steps
    • Learners require practice, feedback and review
    • Social models facilitate learning and motivation
    • Motivation and contextual factors influence learning
learning theories1
Learning Theories
  • Among the learning theories are:
    • Behavior Theory
    • Social Cognitive Theory
behavior theory
Behavior Theory
  • This theory focuses on observable behavior, not thoughts or feelings.
  • B.F. Skinner, a famous behaviorist, distinguished between two types of behavior: respondent and operant.
behavior theory1
Behavior Theory
  • Respondent behavior refer s to the kind of behavior shown during classical conditioning when a stimulus triggers a natural reaction (such as salivation in Pavlov’s dogs) or other automatic responses such as excitement and fear.
  • Operant behavior ( behavior that operates on the environment) are forms of behavior which are not the result of simple automatic responses.
  • According to Skinner, operant behavior is learned and strengthened by a process of operant conditioning.
behavior theory2
Behavior Theory
  • Thus learning is the result from strengthen stimulus (S) – response (R) links through reinforcing appropriate behavior (reward).
  • Example:

The senior supervisor in department A has been asked to speak on behalf of the department A manager at a dinner party (stimulus){the manager had a bad sore throat}. The senior supervisor agreed (response), although he was scared of public speaking. During the dinner party, the senior supervisor managed to give his speech and the manager smiled and nodded in agreement to what has been said by the senior supervisor (reward/reinforcement ).

The effect of the reward/reinforcement is that most likely the senior supervisor will agree to give more public speaking in the future.

behavior approach
Behavior approach
  • The process of operant conditioning is often described in a three-term framework : antecedents (A), behavior (B) and consequences (C).
  • Antecedents refer to the conditions or stimuli preceding the behavior.
  • Consequences refer to the reinforcement (or punishment) that the behavior produce.
  • With animals, the reinforcement often take in the form of food, while in humans – variety : smiles, gifts, money, compliments etc .
behavior theory3
Behavior Theory
  • In general, reinforcement is anything which follows an operant behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
  • The behavior research in operant learning provides rich information into learning experience, which can be applied in a wide range of organizational and various contexts.
social cognitive theory
Social Cognitive Theory
  • Social Cognitive Theory originated from the work of N. E. Miller & J. Dollard in 1941. Their proposition posits that if humans were motivated to learn a particular behavior, that particular behavior would be learned through clear observations. By imitating these observed actions the individual observer would solidify that learned action and would be rewarded with positive reinforcement (Miller & Dollard, 1941). The proposition of social learning was expanded upon and theorized by Albert Bandura from 1962 to the present (Wikepedia)
social cognitive theory1
Social Cognitive Theory
  • Social cognitive theory stresses the idea that much of human learning occurs in social environment.
  • Assumptions within the social cognitive theory, are (Schunk, 2008):
    • Interactions between persons , behaviors and environments are reciprocal (diagram in the next slide)
    • Learning occurs either enactively (through actual doing) or vicariously (observing models perform)
    • There is a distinction between learning and performance.
social cognitive theory enactive and vicarious learning
Social Cognitive Theory: Enactive and Vicarious Learning
  • Enactive learning involves learning from the consequences of one’s actions; behaviors which results in successful consequences are maintained while those results in unsuccessful consequences are refined or discarded (Schunk, 2008)
  • Social cognitive theory contends that behavioral consequences serves as sources of information and motivation rather than strengthening behavior as proposed by operant theory (Schunk, 2008).
social cognitive theory enactive and vicarious learning1
Social Cognitive Theory: Enactive and Vicarious Learning
  • Consequences informs people of the accuracy or appropriateness of behavior.
  • People who succeed at a task or are rewarded understand that they are performing well .
  • People who fail or are punished know that they did something wrong and will try to correct the problem.
  • Consequences motivate people.
  • In social cognitive theory, people’s cognition, rather than consequences affect learning.
social cognitive theory enactive and vicarious learning2
Social Cognitive Theory: Enactive and Vicarious learning
  • According to the social cognitive theory, much of human learning occurs vicariously (that is without overt performance by the learner at the time of learning), such as observing or listening to models who are live (in person), symbolic or nonhuman(e.g cartoon characters), electronic (television, computer, videotape) etc
  • Vicarious learning also save people from personally experiencing negative consequences.
social cognitive theory learning and performance
Social Cognitive Theory: Learning and Performance
  • Social cognitive theorists assert that learning and performance are distinct processes (Schunk, 2008), in contrast to the behaviorist which contend that learning involves connecting responses to stimuli or responses and consequences.
  • According to the social cognitive theory, although much learning occurs by doing, we learn a great deal by observing; thus modeling is a critical component in this theory.
  • Whether we ever perform what we learned through observation depends on various factors such as motivation, interest etc.
  • Riggio, R. E( 1996). Introduction to Industrial Organizational psychology. New York : Harper Collins
  • Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson
  • Kail, R.V (2007). Children and their Development. New Jersey: Pearson Education
  • Gerow, J. R (1997). Psychology. An introduction (5thed). New York:Longman
  • Huffman, K (2007). Psychology in Action (8thed). New Jersey:Wiley
  • Schunk, D. H (2008). Learning Theories. An Educational Perspective (5thed). New Jersey: Pearson
  • Wikipedia