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1.The Principles Of Training. 2. Training Methods. 3. Anatomy Of A Training Session. 4. Planning The Training Year: Periodisation. 1. The Principles Of Training. To train effectively we must adopt the following : S pecificity P rogression O verload R eversibility T edium. Specificity.

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1.The Principles Of Training

2. Training Methods

3. Anatomy Of A Training Session

4. Planning The Training Year: Periodisation

1 the principles of training
1. The Principles Of Training

To train effectively we must adopt the following :

  • Specificity
  • Progression
  • Overload
  • Reversibility
  • Tedium

Our training must be specific to the requirements of our chosen sport or sporting activity.

Eg. A sprinter would concentrate on speed rather than cardio-vascular endurance.

Can you think of two other examples of specificity?


As we increase the amount of training we do we must increase the stress on our body. In this way our training will become progressively difficult. This progressionshould be gradual to prevent injury.

We can ensure progression during aerobicsessions by checking our pulse rate and having knowledge of our training thresholds.

training thresholds general guidelines
Training Thresholds: General Guidelines
  • Up To 60% MHR:The Recovery Zone.
  • 60% MHR: The Aerobic Threshold: below this, there is no training effect.
  • 60 – 80% MHR: The Aerobic Training Zone: improves aerobic fitness.
  • 80 – 90% MHR: Anaerobic Threshold Zone: training effect changes from aerobic to anaerobic.
  • 90 – 95% MHR: Anaerobic Training Zone: improves anaerobic fitness.
  • Over 95% MHR: Speed Training Zone: training nearly flat out.

To improve our fitness we must overload, orstress, our body systems. This means making them work harder than normal.

Our bodies will then adapt to this extra work and so we will become fitter.

Overload can be implemented the FITT principles.

the fitt principles
The FITT Principles

We can implement overload by adjusting the following elements of our training programs:

Frequency: how often we train.

Intensity: how hard our sessions are.

Time: how long our sessions are.

Type: what we include in our sessions.


As training increases fitness, so not training decreases fitness. This will happen in only three or four weeks.

This is why fitness levels are lower following injury.

Muscles will also atrophy (waste away) if they are not used.


Tedium, or boredom, should be avoided in all training programs by using a range of trainingmethods to maintain enthusiasm and interest.

By varying training methods, we can also reduce the risk of overuse injuries.

Choose a sporting activity and think of as many training methods that could be used as part of a training program for that activity.

training methods
Training Methods

There are many different training methods that are based on an understanding of how our body adapts to training. Each training method is designed to improve a specific area of fitness.

You should be familiar with the following training methods:

1. Continuous Training

2. Interval Training

3. Weight Training

4.Fartlek Training

5.Circuit Training

continuous training
Continuous Training

This involves training without rest periods.

Activities may include long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling or rowing.

Work should be done at 60 to 80% of MHR.

fartlek training
Fartlek Training

This involves training over distances far greater than competition distances. The pace of running is varied between jogging, walking, striding and sprinting.

The way that these activities are put together will produce an aerobic or anaerobic effect.

This training method is excellent for games players as it recreates the changing intensity levels of a match.

interval training
Interval Training

This involves alternating periods of work and rest. This training method can be used to develop aerobic or anaerobic fitness, depending on the demands of the session.

We can vary:

The distance of runs.

The intensity of each run.

The number of runs

The length of recovery.

circuit training
Circuit Training

This involves a series of exercises in a givensequence. The circuit may be sport specific, position specific, component specific or general.

We can vary:

The number of stations.

The work period.

The number of reps.

The rest period.

The number of circuits.

weight training
Weight Training

This involves using body weight, free weights ormachine weights to carry out a range of exercises to improve muscular strength, muscular endurance or power. (speed x strength)

This is done by applying resistance to individual muscles or muscle groups.

the training session
The Training Session

All training sessions should have four main sections. These are:

1. Warm Up

2. Fitness Session

3. Skill Session

4. Warm Down (Cool Down)

1 warm up
1. Warm Up

The warm up should consist of:

1. A period of gentle cardio-vascular exercise to raise body temperature and heart rate.

2. Dynamic stretching to prepare muscles and joints for the demands of the activity.

Prior to a match or competition, the warm up may also include skill drills to practice the movement patterns and techniques of the activity.

The warm up should prepare the body both mentally and physically.

2 fitness session
2. Fitness Session

The fitness carried out during this section will depend on the sporting activity, the stage of theseason and the stage of the training week.

A hard fitness session may well follow the skills session rather than precede it, depending on the coach’s overall aims for the training session.

3 skill session
3. Skill Session

This session may include individual, group, unit or whole team skill drills.

New skills may be learned and developed in unopposed or semi-opposed drills.

However, once skills have been learned, coaches will try and make these drills as competitive as possible so that they closely relate to the actual sporting activity.

4 warm down cool down
4. Warm Down (Cool Down)

This should involve a period of gentle cardio-vascular activity and static stretching aimed at reducing the recovery time from the session by removing Carbon Dioxide, Lactic Acid and other waste products from the working muscles.

This session also allows heart rate to return to normal gradually and so prevent blood pooling in the working muscles which can again lead to muscle stiffness and soreness.

4 planning the training year periodisation
4. Planning The Training Year: Periodisation

Closed Season

Out Of Season


Early Season

Peak Season


Sportsmen and sports teams should plan their training programs so that they ‘peak’ at the times of major competitions or particularly important matches. This process is called Periodisation.

The training year should be divided into the following phases:

1. Closed Season.

2. Out Of Season.

3. Pre-Season.

4. Early Season.

5. Peak Season.

1 closed season
1. Closed Season

This phase of the training year is characterised by:

1. A complete break from the sporting activity.

2. Recovery from or treatment for any injuries from the previous season.

3. Recreation and relaxation through participation in other sports or activities.

2 out of season
2. Out Of Season

This phase of the training year is characterised by:

1. Heavy weight training to develop strength.

2. Low intensity continuous training to develop an aerobic base.

3. Light skills training with non-competitive game related activities.

3 pre season
3. Pre-Season

This phase of the training year is characterised by:

1. Higher intensity training with the emphasis on speed, agility and power.

2. Higher intensity skills training in competitive situations.

3. Full scale practice matches.

4 early season
4. Early Season

This phase of the training year is characterised by:

1. High intensity power and speed training during early part of week.

2. Game related drills and unit skills.

3. Game preparation towards end of week.

4. Competitive match at weekend.

5 peak season
5. Peak Season

This phase of the training year is characterised by:

1. High quality speed work.

2. Light weight training to maintain fitness levels.

3. Quality rest periods.

4. Game preparation towards end of week.

5. Competitive matches once or twice a week.