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The United States in the Cold War
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  1. The United States in the Cold War Chapter 25 Section 1: Roots of the Cold War Section 2: A Time of Prosperity Section 3: The Korean “War” Period Section 4: Global Concerns in the Cold War

  2. Roots of the Cold War • Cold War = Communist vs. non-Communist • Yalta Conference: Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt • Stalin promises democratic governments in Soviet controlled European countries • Iron Curtain: is a way of referring to a barrier to understanding and information • Satellite: is a nation that is dominated politically or economically by a more powerful nation

  3. Containing Soviet Expansion • Truman Doctrine • “It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” • Containment: to contain or limit Soviet expansion

  4. Containing Soviet Expansion • Marshall Plan • Sec. of State George Marshall • Loan 16 Eur. Countries $12 billion • Berlin Airlift • Airlift: sending cargo planes to deliver tons of supplies to the people • Cold War Crisis • Building of the wall

  5. International Organizations • United Nations • General Assembly, Security Council • Security Council: US, Russia, China, Britain, and France (have the power of Veto) • North Atlantic Treat Organization • Formal military alliance • “All for one and one for all.” • Warsaw Alliance • Soviet Pact with satellite countries

  6. The Shocks of 1949 • Sept. 49  Soviet A-Bomb • China crosses over

  7. Section 2 Prosperity • Peacetime Adjustments: • Defense Industry • GI Bill of Rights • Inflation • Cong. Passes Taft-Hartley • 80 day strike delay • Banned closed shop • Bans union contributions to political parties • Closed shop: workplace in which only union members can be hired

  8. Election of 1948 • Truman vs. Dewey • Different approaches to Campaigning • Truman wins but does not help with Fair Deal

  9. Changing Society • Computers increase Productivity • Productivity: rate at which workers produce goods • Increasing Standard of Living for Americans • Standard of living: measure of how comfortable life is for a person, group, or country • Early marriages and larger families result in a baby boom.

  10. Changing Society • Leaving the city • Increased use of the Television • New music genre: Rock-and-Roll • Elvis Presley • Cities are hurt: • Loss of tax money • Inner cities: centers of older cities • City services decline

  11. Korean “War” • Divided at the 38th parallel • June 25, 1950: N. Korea invades S. Korea • Soviet tanks and artillery • UN Security Council sends force • MacArthur appointed to lead forces • Forces pushed back to tip of peninsula

  12. Korean War • MacArthur’s Counter-offensive @ Inchon • China invades • Stalemate: a situation in which neither side wins • Truman v. MacArthur • Peace talks in 1950 • Last 2 years

  13. Peace Results • Cease-fire July 1953 • Demilitarized zone: area from which military forces are prohibited • Still in place today!!!!!

  14. Domestic Fears • Soviet overthrow of American government • Hiss vs. Chambers • Americans arrest for passing a-bomb secrets

  15. McCarthyism • Joseph McCarthy – Sen. Of Wisconsin • Threatened the US communists • Def.: Threats without evidence • 1954 false accusations on tv about the ARMY • Censure: condemn • McCarthy censured by the Senate

  16. Global Concerns • 1953: Stalin dies and Krushchev takes over • Superpowers: countries whose military, economic, and political strength are so great that they can influence event worldwide • 1950s Arms Race • Arms race: a contest in which nations compete to build more and more powerful weapons

  17. Arms Race • 1952- first American H-bomb • Soviets counter with own H-bomb • China joins with A-bomb in 1964 • 1967 China has H-bomb • Britain and France develop nuclear weapons • Stockpiles: collections of weapons

  18. Space competition • 1957: Sputnik launched • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) created in response • Also passed National Defense Educaton Act

  19. Emerging Nations • 1961: John F. Kennedy proposes Peace Corps • Soviets: Ghana and Guinea • War in Congo • 1946: Philippines gets independence from U.S. • Ho Chi Minh takes control of Vietnam

  20. Other areas of Cold War • Castro takes over Cuba • Exiled many Cubans • Bay of Pigs: exiles trained by CIA • Makes things worse • Cuban missile Crisis • 1962 photographs • Blockade