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THE CIVIL WAR. **Beginnings of the actual war -Fort Sumter (SC) — one of the last forts held by N -it had low supplies & might have to give up -Lincoln knew he could not send troops or the S would fight -decided to tell S he would send provisions NOT reinforcements -S didn’t see a difference.

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**Beginnings of the actual war

-Fort Sumter (SC) — one of the last forts held by N

-it had low supplies & might have to give up

-Lincoln knew he could not send troops or the S would fight

-decided to tell S he would send provisions NOT reinforcements

-S didn’t see a difference

-Apr. 12, 1861 S opened fire & after 32 hours took the fort

-N saw it as a provocation

-Apr. 15 — Lincoln called for 75,000 militia and the Civil War began

  • Border states: Missouri, KY, MD, Del., & later W.VA (6/20/1863) remained neutral

-important due to rivers for navigating & manufacturing in KY, MD, Missouri

-high white population

Lincoln did not publicly declare that he was fighting to free the Blacks

-to save union instead

“Brother against Brother” — Crittenden had 1 son fight for S while another son fought for N; Lincoln’s wife had 4 brothers fight for the S

**Advantages & Disadvantages
  • South Adv.

(1) fighting on own soil

(2) only fight to a draw

(3) fighting for way of life

(4) most talented officers

[Lee, Stonewall Jackson]

(5) men were good at fighting

South Disadv

(1) no factories

(2) few RR’s

(3) only 9,103,332 pop.

[3,521,110 in slaves, 1.2 million combat age]

(4) only $47 million in bank

North Adv. 100,000

(1) had both farms & factories

(2) 23 states & 7 territories [Calif., Ore, KY, Md, MO]

(3) Some 20,000 miles of RR track

(4) controlled the seas [superior navy]

(5) larger armies

(6) larger pop. (22,339,989) [4 mill, combat age]

(7) $189 million in bank deposit

North Disadv

(1) Military, not well trained

(2) less talented mil. leaders

(3) had to “go into the South”

  • What if….

(a) Border states secedes?

(b) Upper Miss. River Valley states stayed with the Union?

(c) North demanded an armistice?

(d) Europe broke blockade

**Expanding Presidential Powers & Limiting Liberties (North)

-All of the following were done by Lincoln but later approved by Congress

Lincoln created a blockade around the South

-increased size of military

-ordered $2 million from the US Treasury for mil. Purposes

-suspended writ of habeas corpus

-held supervised elections in Border States, intimidated voters, limited the right of some newspapers

Northern Army

-1st relied on volunteers (quota from each state)

-1863 Congress passed a draft (rich could hire subs or pay to the govt. $300 not to go)

-result: “Bounty Brokers” would go to the poor houses in Eng. to get men to enlist

Southern Army

-enlisted men aged 17 to 50

-used a draft earlier

-called “a rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight”

  • Women’s role

-worked in factories, tended to the sick (1st female doctor Elizabeth Blackwell) nurses (Clara Barton)

war battles begin
War Battles Begin

(battles named differently: North named them for the waterways closest by; south for the nearest communities)

-Lincoln originally planned to fight for 90 days

-he did not necessarily want to get rid of slavery

-only get the South to come back

**1st Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Junction) {30 miles SW of DC}

-July 21, 1861 — 1st major battle

-Union troops fled but the Conf. were too tired to follow and finish

  • *Effects:

-psychologically = (a) gave South too much confidence, (b) some felt it was already over, (c) hurt North’s morale for quick victory & caused them to buckle down

**Lincolns plan of total war: The Anaconda Plan

(1) blockade South

(2) free slaves & remove economic base in South

(3) take Miss. River & cut South in half

(4) cut it up by putting troops in GA & the Carolinas

(5) take Richmond

(6) wear them down

**Antietam (9/17/1862) — turning point & bloodiest battle of the war

-turned out to be a draw, but Lee withdrew;

-Union army under Gen. George McClellan chose not to pursue

-crucial because

(1) Br. & Fr. were on the verge of intervening but since N won they held off;

(2) gave Lincoln reason to announce the Emancipation Proclamation

**Emancipation Proclamation —Jan. 1, 1863

-“The Old South will be destroyed”

-declared “forever free” the slaves in those Confed. States still in rebellion

-border state slaves not effected (about 800,000)

-Lincoln really could not free them, but allowed many to free themselves; only really strengthened the North’s moral basis

**After Antietam, McClellan was eventually replaced by Gen. Meade

-Lee decided to invade the North into PA

-Lee met Meade at Gettysburg (Union = 92,000 men v. 76,000) in July, 1863.

-battled back and forth for days, with no victor in sight

-finally, the Union defeated Lee

-from here on South at a loss : day after Union won at Vicksburg (by Grant)

-a few months later, the Gettysburg Address given in the fall of 1863

**After much searching, Lincoln finally found a competent leader:

Ulysses Grant (victories at Fort Henry, Donnellson, & Shiloh)

*Shermans March to the Sea - William Tecumseh Sherman (1864- 1865)

-captured Atlanta (burned most of it) decided to take his men & live off of the land + go to Savannah (250 miles away)

-destroyed everything in his 60 mile wide path all the way to the sea


-Lincoln renominated

-Vice President became Andrew Johnson (War Dem., used to patch things up with border states)

-Lincoln won 212 to McClellan’s 21 (from KY, Del. MD)

-his win caused the South to lose hope

Confederates finally surrendered (Lincoln would accept nothing less)

-Union took Richmond & cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Va on Apr. 12, 1865

*Lincolns death

-shot in Ford’s Theatre on Apr. 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth

-upset over the treatment of the South

**Cost of the War

-Union army lost 2,324,516 + 1 million wounded

-Conf. Army lost 260.000 + over a million wounded

-entire nation lost a entire generation, including the best minds and potential leaders

-$15 billion

-surrender forever put down states’ rights & nullification

-preserved democratic ideals

-inspired other democratic supporters around the world