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Kennedy and the Cold War. Section 19.1. The 1960 Election. Issues left over from Eisenhower: Sputnik I and Laika U2 incident Race Issues (Montgomery Bus Boycott, Birmingham, Selma, etc.) And… 22 nd Amendment didn’t let Eisenhower run again. The Candidates.

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the 1960 election
The 1960 Election
  • Issues left over from Eisenhower:
    • Sputnik I and Laika
    • U2 incident
    • Race Issues (Montgomery Bus Boycott, Birmingham, Selma, etc.)
    • And…
      • 22nd Amendment didn’t let Eisenhower run again
the candidates
The Candidates
  • JFK and Nixon square off for the presidency
    • Both are young (JFK – 1917, Nixon - 1913)
    • Both served in the Navy in WWII
    • Both elected in 1946 and JFK to the Senate in 1950
    • Both anti-Communist
senator john f kennedy d
  • Came from a wealthy Massachusetts family
  • Roman Catholic (concerned Protestants)
  • Young and Charismatic (43)
    • Advocated a stronger stance towards Soviets
    • Emphasized stronger military and science programs
    • Played on the plight of the poor & African-Americans
problems for kennedy
Problems for Kennedy
  • His family – wealthy father an appeaser in WWII
    • Money supports him
    • Daddy had money in Hollywood, Whiskey, stock market, manager of a shipyard
  • His age (43) – says his energy is a plus but experience…
  • His faith – Irish Catholic; said he would be a president who is Catholic not a Catholic president
vice president richard nixon r
Vice President RICHARD NIXON (R)
  • Came from a modest, working class California family
  • Raised a Quaker (no drinking, dancing, swearing…people thought he was too conservative)
  • Linked to the Eisenhower administration
    • Seen as resistant to change and “uncool” in the new times)
the sweaty debates mr miser
The “Sweaty Debates” – Mr. Miser
  • First televised debates
    • JFK wins the image war
      • Tanned and makeup
    • Nixon wins among those who listened on radio
      • Looked sick and pale
the civil rights issue
The Civil Rights Issue
  • As MLK in jail in Birmingham (1956 – after bus boycott)
    • JFK sends Robert F. Kennedy to help MLK
    • Nixon worked behind the scenes (felt it was inappropriate to act)
  • JFK wins the black vote
the actual election
The Actual Election
  • 68,835,000 votes cast
    • JFK wins by 119,000
  • Hold on a minute…
    • Did Chicago mob throw the election?
    • Nixon refuses to challenge the outcome
the inauguration
The Inauguration

Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You, Ask What you Can Do For Your Country!!!

a different kind of white house
A Different Kind of White House
  • Informal White House Advisors
    • Young, well-educated, experts (friends – not government people)
  • Cabinet
    • More experienced,

well versed in the

history of the


new cold war strategies
New Cold War Strategies
  • Claimed Eisenhower allowed a “missile gap” to happen and that USSR was winning
    • Eisenhower cautioned against militarism as the tail that wags the dog
  • Also claimed Eisenhower had relied on nuclear forces to much
    • Conventional forces were unprepared
jfk s flexible response
JFK’s Flexible Response
  • Move away from massive retaliation and brinksmanship
  • Build up special forces and conventional weapons to fight non-nuclear wars and provide non-nuclear deterrent
    • Is war more likely?
dealing with more image issues
Dealing with more Image Issues
  • Soviets claim to Asia, India, South America, and Africa that capitalism caused their poverty
    • The US is the CAPTALIST state
america s soft power
America’s Soft Power
  • JFK wanted to improve US image in 3rd World
    • THIRD WORLD – countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO (First World) or the Communist Bloc (Second World)
    • Peace Corps 1961 – worked
      • Sent young Americans to do economic and social development work (2-year tours)
    • Alliance for Progress made to change Soviet and Cuban influence
      • In essence, Marshall Plan for Latin America
      • $20 billion in assistance and asked Latin Americans gov’ts to provide $80 billion in investment
      • Didn’t work
the post war divide
The Post War Divide
  • Germany was divided into four economic zones that were supposed to work together to eventually reunite the country of Germany
  • At Potsdam, Truman, Stalin, and Attlee set out the principles of the Allied Control Council
    • Germany’s complete disarmament and demilitarization
    • Destruction of war potential
    • Rigid control of industry
    • Decentralization of the political and economic structure
the trouble with berlin
The Trouble with Berlin
  • Of the two Berlins, West was more prosperous, more economically strong
  • Berlin sat in the middle of Eastern Germany, 200 miles from the East and West Germany border
    • It became a place for Eastern Germans to flee to in order to find work or even to make it to West Germany
the monster
The Monster
  • 13 August 1961 – “shock workers” shut off the border between East and West Berlin using barbed wire
  • 16 Aug – the barbed wire was replaced by concrete
    • The final wall was 4 m (13 ft) high and 111 m (364 ft) long
    • 300 watch towers with orders to shoot on sight
    • 190 people were killed on the eastern side of the Wall
life under castro the real reason the us is not too fond of him
Life under Castro – the real reason the US is not too fond of him
  • 1960 – Castro nationalized all US-businesses
    • Oil refineries, factories, and casinos
    • US enacted embargo
dealing with a communist cuba hint they don t do it well
Dealing with a Communist Cuba (hint…they don’t do it well)
  • CIA plans attempts on Castro’s life
    • Ex: Exploding cigars, fungal infected diving suits, mafia hits, ballpoint hypodermic syringe, the list goes on…)
  • Begs the question: Was Cuba behind the JFK assassination?
cia invasion
CIA Invasion
  • Cuban exiles trained by CIA to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro
    • US would then announce its support and aid the rebels
  • JFK gives the go ahead
bay of pigs invasion like i said not well
Bay of Pigs Invasion (like I said, not well…)
  • April 1961 – 1,400 Cuban exiles trained by the CIA landed near the Bay of Pigs to overthrow Castro
    • Old US bombers piloted by Cuban exiles used to destroy Cuba’s air force
    • Castro alerted by air strikes and exiles given no more air support
  • 1,300 were captured and in 1962 Castro freed them for medical supplies and baby food (worth $52 million)
results of bay of pigs
Results of Bay of Pigs

Castro strengthens ties to Khrushchev for protection

Communism inches closer to the US mainland

cuban missile crisis they re like children really
Cuban Missile Crisis (they’re like children really..)
  • Aug 1962 – the first rumors about Soviet missiles in Cuba began to surface in the US press Soviet ambassadors denied the missiles
  • 14 Oct 1962 – U-2 spy planes find the missiles
the tensions continue to rise
The Tensions Continue to Rise
  • Kennedy knew they could not invade Cuba but needed to get rid of the missiles without any concessions
    • Decided to blockade Cuba
    • USSR said that was illegal and that they would test it
  • USSR sent ships toward the blockade but turned back at the last moment
    • Khrushchev sent a letter to Kennedy appealing to reason and trust to prevent a war
yay something done right
Yay! Something done right!
  • Global thermal nuclear war averted
  • Nukes taken out of Cuba in exchange for the removal of the Turkey nukes
    • US public thinks JFK won
d tente
  • Policy of Brezhnev
  • Relaxation of cold war tensions
    • Step back from war
    • A “Hot Line” was installed
    • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) – ended above ground testing