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An Emerging World Power 1890-1917. Chapter 11. The Roots of Imperialism. Imperialism is when nations seeks to extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker nations Is the United States imperialistic today?

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the roots of imperialism
The Roots of Imperialism
  • Imperialism is when nations seeks to extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker nations
    • Is the United States imperialistic today?
  • In the late 1800s America decided to follow Europe’s imperialistic behavior into Japan
    • Europe used these countries to extract resources like oil, iron, and tea
    • America already had lots of resources, so instead of stripping the country of resources, they wanted to be able to sell their excess manufactured goods in these countries
the roots of imperialism1
The Roots of Imperialism
  • New countries to trade with meant prices could stabilize since they would have new places to sell the goods
    • Albert Beveridge said “Today we are raising more [crops] than we can consume. Today we are making more than we can use…Therefore we must find new markets for our produce, new occupation for our capital, new work for our labor.”
    • Why would finding new markets help?
the roots of imperialism2
The Roots of Imperialism
  • Imperialists knew that if we were going to expand it would require going into the oceans to do so
    • Alfred T. Mahan wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History to explain that America’s need to build a large navy
    • He also said we needed foreign bases to have places to stop for refueling, etc.
  • By 1900 the U.S. had the 3rd largest navy in the world
the roots of imperialism3
The Roots of Imperialism
  • Imperialists supported the idea that America was superior and therefore they should exert their influence on the “lesser” nations
    • Social Darwinism, survival of the fittest, was widely accepted
    • Manifest Destiny, or the idea that God wanted America to expand, was also widely accepted—especially because many felt God wanted Christianity to expand to these nations
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The Roots of Imperialism
  • Since America already had “sea to shining sea” they had to look to the Pacific Ocean if they wanted to keep with their westward movement
    • Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to Japan, who had denied everyone access to their ports
    • Perry was allowed there by showering the emperor with gifts
    • Perry showed them that they had fallen behind in the world of technology and that they should open trade with America
  • They said yes, and haven’t looked back…
the roots of imperialism5
The Roots of Imperialism
  • In 1867 Sec. of State William Seward purchased Alaska for $7.2 million
    • This was called “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox”
    • It double the size of the United States
    • Turns out, it was a smart purchase…there is an amazing amount of the world’s oil supply under Alaska AND it was handy to have that area in fighting the Cold War against Russia in the 1900s
  • Why did people criticize him for the purchase?
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The Roots of Imperialism
  • America had been trading with Hawai’i since the 1790s
    • Christians had set up missionaries, churches, and schools
    • Americans had also set up sugar plantations there
    • They convinced King Kalakuaua to amend Hawai’i’s constitution to limit voting rights to wealthy, white planters
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The Roots of Imperialism
  • The American’s grew concerned about their power
    • America had a tariff on imported sugar which meant Hawaiian sugar was more expensive than American sugar
    • King Kalakuaua died and his sister Queen Liliuokalani took over who was Anti-white
      • She abolished the constitution
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The Roots of Imperialism
  • The American planters called for the U.S. minister of Hawai’i, John Stevens, to bring in the Marines
    • They successfully seized power and established a new government
  • Sanford Dole asked Pres. Benjamin Harrison to annex Hawai’i
    • Senate didn’t approve before Pres. Cleveland was inaugurated
  • He ordered an investigation and refused to sign the annexation because of the “reprehensible conduct of the American minister”
    • Pres. McKinley supported annexation of Hawai’i so he signed and Hawai’i became a territory in 1898
the spanish american war
The Spanish-American War
  • Spain had been an impressive imperialistic nation in the 1600-1700s
    • By the end of the 1800s it was left with the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Cuba
  • The Cubans regularly rebelled against Spain for independence
  • José Martí led a war for independence
    • Spanish Gen. Weyler put the Cubans into reconcentration camps which killed many of them
the spanish american war1
The Spanish-American War
  • Many Americans felt sympathy for the Cubans
    • Since Spain was being so brutal and because America remembered breaking away from their mother-country
    • America also saw Cuba as an excellent source for new trade if they were stabilized
  • The press supported Cuba with sensational stories
    • Yellow journalism were exaggerated stories used to gain support for the rebels
    • William Randolph Hearst was the leader in publishing these stories
the spanish american war2
The Spanish-American War
  • McKinley sent the U.S.S. Maine down to Havana to protect the Americans who lived there
  • A Spanish Ambassador wrote a letter stating that McKinley was weak and stupid, Hearst published the letter
    • “Worst Insult to the United States in Its History” read the headline
  • Jingoism, or aggressive nationalism, was fueled by this article
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The Spanish-American War
  • The intensity grew when the Maine blew up in Havana killing 266
  • An investigation was done by the Navy and they declared that it was a mine that had blown up the ship
    • Years later it was reinvestigated and it appears that it was actually an accident
the spanish american war4
The Spanish-American War
  • Spain agreed to make concessions and end concentration camps but it was too late
    • On April 11, 1898 America declared war on Spain to force it to end hostilities with Cuba
    • It included the Teller Amendment which said the U.S. would NOT annex Cuba
  • Many Americans joined the military
    • Most would be shipped out to the Pacific Ocean
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The Spanish-American War
  • Commodore George Dewey led the Americans in battle against the Spaniards in the Philippines
    • 400 Spanish died, 0 Americans
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino nationalist, was successfully beating the Spanish army on land
  • U.S. Marines captured Guantanamo Bay in Cuba
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The Spanish-American War
  • T. Roosevelt stepped down as Sec. of the Navy and led the Rough Riders into battle
    • They charged San Juan hill and won impressive victories
  • The Spanish tried to escape but the Americans had created a blockade to prevent them
    • Frantic but unable to move, they surrendered
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The Spanish-American War
  • Many of the soldiers waiting to be sent to Cuba gathered in Tampa, FL
    • They were given obsolete weapons and spoiled food due to inefficient and corrupt officials
    • In the end 3000 Americans died in the Spanish American war, but only 380 died in battle
  • The war was nicknamed “a splendid little war” because it proved America’s ability to easily beat a European power
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The Spanish-American War
  • However a new dilemma was created…what to do with Spain’s former territories?
  • The Treaty of Parisforced Spain to give Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam up as well as sell the Philippines to the US for $20 million
    • Americans disagreed as to whether the US should control these areas (could control Cuba because of the Teller Amendment)
  • Anti-imperialists said it violated American principles to retain the Philippines, imperialists said it was only right to protect and educate the Filipinos
the spanish american war9
The Spanish-American War
  • Keep the Philippines came down to one vote
    • We kept the Philippines until the mid-1900s
  • The anti-imperialists were not happy
    • They put up William Jennings Bryan to run against McKinley
    • McKinley chose T.R. to be his V.P. candidate since he was a hero
    • McKinley easily won reelection, reaffirming that people supported imperialism
  • 1900 opened with America as a new empire and strongly involved in world affairs