gsci 163 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
GSCI 163 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
GSCI 163

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

GSCI 163 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 154 Views
  • Uploaded on

GSCI 163. Lecture 12. Organic chemistry. What distinguishes organic chemistry from other areas of chemistry? Origins – compounds from plants and animals Organic compounds were though to have a “v ital force” and as such to be impossible to synthesize in laboratory.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'GSCI 163' - lowell


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
gsci 163

GSCI 163

Lecture 12

organic chemistry
Organic chemistry

What distinguishes organic chemistry from other areas of chemistry?

Origins – compounds from plants and animals

Organic compounds were though to have a “vital force” and as such to be impossible to synthesize in laboratory.

Friedrich Wöhlerdebunked this notion by synthesizing urea a common carbon based compound found in human urine.

The area of chemistry that studies carbon based compounds, hydrocarbons and respective derivatives.

common elements
Common elements

In organic compounds, the bonds are covalent since the elements are non-metals. The most common elements in organic compounds are:

hydrocarbons the simplest organic compounds
Hydrocarbons: the simplest organic compounds

Hydrocarbons are a combination of carbon and hydrogen atoms. All other organic compounds are considered derivative of hydrocarbons.

How can we combine carbon and hydrogen atoms to make organic compounds?

  • If they form a special ring they are classified as aromatic hydrocarbons – fundamental characteristic: a distinctive smell
  • If they don’t they are classified as aliphatic
the benzene family
The benzene family

The most important aromatic compound is the benzene ring. Benzene is a clear, colorless liquid with a distinct odor. It is carcinogenic.

Other common aromatic hydrocarbons are:

aliphatic family
Aliphatic family

If an organic compound does not have an benzene ring, it is know as an aliphatic hydrocarbon.

They can be divided into four groups depending on the types of bonds:

  • Alkanes – only single bonds
  • Cycloalkanes – rings of carbons with single bonds
  • Alkenes – double bond between carbon atoms
  • Alkynes – triple bond between carbon atoms
alkanes clan
Alkanes clan

Gas

Liquid

Saturated = CnH2n+2

where do we find alkanes
Where do we find alkanes?
  • Methane: Natural gas
  • Propane & butane
  • Gasoline: alkanes n=5 to 10
  • Kerosene: alkanes n=10 to 16
  • Higher n: diesel, fuel oil, petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, lubricating oil and asphalt
combustible
Combustible

Alkanes are highly combustible reacting with O2 forming carbon dioxide, water vapor and releasing heat. If combustion is not complete, carbon monoxide and black sooty carbon is produced.

What is the octane rate?

100 = Trymethylpentane

cycloalkanes
Cycloalkanes

Rings of saturated hydrocarbons

Properties similar to the alkanes, but have higher boiling points, melting point and densities than alkanes

alkenes
Alkenes

These hydrocarbons have double bonds between two carbon atoms.

Most common: ethylene

Alkenes are very reactive and known as unsaturated hydrocarbons which react with H2 to form a corresponding alkane.

alkynes
Alkynes

Hydrocarbons that have a triple bond between two carbon atoms.

Most common: acetylene

Used for welding application because of the high temperature of its flame: over 3000 C

summary
Summary

Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic

Aromatic

Alkanes

Cycloalkanes

Alkenes

Alkynes

next class
Next class
  • Derivatives of hydrocarbons