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Bloat. Brendan Kraus, DVM. The Rumen. A specialized fermentation vat in the bovine Fermentation is controlled through diet selection, saliva (buffer), constant mixing Fermentation is breakdown of food into energy by microorganisms There is a delicate balance to keep rumentation optimal

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bloat

Bloat

Brendan Kraus, DVM

the rumen
The Rumen
  • A specialized fermentation vat in the bovine
    • Fermentation is controlled through diet selection, saliva (buffer), constant mixing
    • Fermentation is breakdown of food into energy by microorganisms
    • There is a delicate balance to keep rumentation optimal
  • Four types of Contraction Pattern
    • Mixing
    • Eructation
    • Cud Chewing
    • Esophageal groove closure
mixing
Mixing
  • Controlled in an organized manner by brain
    • Mediated by the vagus nerve running from brain through the chest
    • A healthy rumen will mix about 3 times every 2 minutes
eructation
Eructation
  • Tension receptors in rumen sac initiate the reflex via the vagal nerve
  • If foam or fluid are contacting the opening to the esophagus, it remains shut (frothy bloat) (lying down?)
rumenation
Rumenation
  • Regurgitation (pass back up to mouth)
  • Remastication (chew further)
  • Insalivation (wet food and add buffer)
  • Deglutition (swallow)
  • These processes further break up food and add more buffer.
  • Rumenation is an indication of health.
esophageal groove closure
Esophageal Groove Closure
  • Allows milk to bypass the rumen in a calf
    • Mild does not need to be fermented
vagal indigestion
Vagal Indigestion
  • Not a single disease, but a syndrome of many different causes that can cause abdominal distention
  • Classic “papple” shape. Ventral sac more distended than dorsal sac (fluid/ingesta)
  • 4 types
    • Type 1: Free gas bloat
    • Type 2: Failure of transport out of rumen (blockage)
    • Type 3: Failure of transport out of abomasum (blockage)
    • Type 4: Indigestion of advanced pregnancy
type 1 free gas bloat
Type 1: Free Gas Bloat
  • Obstruction in esophagus by foreign object
  • Inflammatory lesion near vagus nerve in chest which results in failure to eructate
type 2 failure of transport out of rumen
Type 2: Failure of Transport out of Rumen
  • Foreign object stuck in rumenomasal outflow (placenta, rumenolith, etc)
  • Abscess around outflow resulting in stasis (hardware)
  • Tumor
type 3 failure of transport out of abomasum
Type 3: Failure of transport out of Abomasum
  • Abomasal impaction with dry feedstuffs
  • Decreased abomasal emptying (Displaced Abomasum, hairball, obstruction)
free gas bloat
Free Gas Bloat
  • Can develop rapidly and is absolutely life threatening
  • Abdominal distention is more pronounced high on the left side
  • Can be colickly or uncomfortable
  • Can have trouble breathing due to pressure on chest
  • Can result from a problem with eructation due to esophagus or rumen motility
esophageal dysfunction
Esophageal Dysfunction
  • Foreign object choke
  • Lesion in wall of esophagus (less common)
  • Compressive lesion outside esophagus (abscess, tumor)
  • Positional (lying down on side)
rumen motility dysfunction
Rumen Motility Dysfunction
  • Sedation
  • Adhesions from hardware, or abdominal infection
  • Vagal nerve damage
  • Abnormal rumen environment
    • Acidosis
    • Disruption of rumen microbes
  • Severe abomasal distention
    • Displaced abomasum
frothy bloat
Frothy Bloat
  • Relaxation of cardia outflow does not occur due to reflex inhibition
  • Gas bubbles are trapped in foam
  • Can occur with a variety of feedstuffs including alfalfa, wheat grain, oats, lush grasses
  • Cannot release foam via a tube
  • Treat with therabloat and then tube later if still needed
bloat treatment
Bloat Treatment
  • Pass a stomach tube
    • May need to work tube around and/or blow in tube to overcome pressure at cardia
    • Make sure there is no foreign object stuck
    • This may need to be done periodically
  • Trocarize (Stick with knife)
    • Last resort to prevent death, be deliberate, stab into rumen and turn knife sideways to allow gas to escape
    • Treat with antibiotics or consider surgical repair if stick was not a clean gas escape
  • Rumenostomy
    • Can use a corkscrew trocar or perform surgical fixation
bloat treatment1
Bloat treatment
  • Remove cattle from offending diet if needed
  • Exercise
  • Bloat Prevention Strategies
    • Feed cattle course roughage before exposure to bloat causing forage (alfalfa, wheat pasture)
    • Turn onto forages after dew has evaporated
    • Ionophores (rumensin)
    • Allow adaptation to high concentrate diets
    • Provide at least 10% diet as roughage