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  1. Reasons for the Gender Gap in Higher Education Salaries Rhonda Magel Professor and Chair Department of Statistics

  2. Perna (2001)- theoretical perspectives of salary studies • 1st – Human capital theory-accomplishments of faculty member (rank, number of publications, teaching effectiveness, length of time in job, etc.) • 2nd Structural Theory – characteristics of the institution or subject area (type of university, geographical location, academic area, etc.)

  3. Studies involving both theories have found gaps • Bellas (1993) – average female faculty salary approximately 25% below average male salary • Barbezat and Hughes (2005)-controlled for several factors and still found 17-23% of variation in faculty salaries (with women making less) not accounted for • Pay Gap Significantly higher at research universites (Barbezat and Hughes (2005)

  4. Black Issues in Higher Ed (2005) • Reports similar findings to Barbezat and Hughes (2005) • Women earn 96% of what men earn at community colleges • 89% of what men earn at baccalaureate institutions • 87% of what men earn at master’s institutions • 78% of what men earn at doctoral institutions

  5. Travis, Gross Johnson (2009) • Women make less money than men in fields that are traditionally considered female fields • Women make less money in science fields that have few women

  6. Time of Hire • Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke (1999) – both men and women faculty rated male accomplishments higher than female accomplishments for job applicants even though equally qualified • Toumanoff (2005) – male faculty paid more at time of hire • Toutkoushian and Moore (2008) – male faculty paid more at time of hire but there is more of a gap later

  7. Components in Relation to Salary • Kasten (1984) and Jauch (2007) found research has largest effect on salaries; Jauch studied 23 “hard science” disciplines and found faculty who had better research evaluations spent more time on research and less time on teaching – rewards went to faculty with stronger research records • Fairweather (2005)- considered number of hours faculty taught per week and number of research publications (not fine arts)-found salary went down for those faculty who taught an extra hour per week and went up with an additional publication (particularly at research universities)

  8. Student Ratings of Instruction • Teaching mainly evaluated at research universities through SROIs (Read, Rama, and Raghunandan 2001) • SROIs have gender bias (Brady and Eisler 1999; Worthington 2002; Arbuckle and Williams 2003) • In younger faculty, men got better ratings than women

  9. Gendered Expectations of Students • Female faculty must spend more time on teaching to meet their gendered expectations (caring, nurturing, available more often) • Male gendered expectations (funny, energetic, intelligent) (Sprague and Massoni 2005; Laube, Massoni, Sprague, and Ferber 2007) • Students expect female teachers to be available more often (Burns-Glover and Veith 1995)

  10. University Climate not as Good for Women • Female faculty in STEM not supported in research as much as Male faculty (Xu 2008) • Gander (1999) and Park (1996) also report less research support • Female faculty have lower job satisfaction and not as good of work climate (Settles, Cortina, Maley, Stewart (2006); Valian (2005)) • Female Faculty felt excluded from discussions at work (Bronstein and Farnsworth (1998)

  11. Climate (Continued) • Cress and Hart (2009) found that the climate within the same department could be totally different for female and male faculty

  12. NDSU Study – Research Productivity • Slobin, McCulla, Magel (2002) • Sampled 49 female faculty members at NDSU and paired each of them with a male faculty member of same rank in a similar discipline • Asked each faculty member to give number in each category of presentations, publications, book chapters, performances, etc. within the past two years – then they were also asked to do that over their entire career

  13. Findings • Paired difference in research productivity between male and female faculty was not significant over a two year period (although the sample average was lower for female faculty) • Paired difference in research productivity between male and female faculty was significant over a career • Female faculty appeared to loose a little ground every year in terms of research productivity when compared to male faculty

  14. Perna (2001) • Found that females had fewer research accomplishments over their career than males of the same rank with similar experience controlling for academic field and type of university • Proportion of time women spent on teaching compared to research was higher than for men • Bellas and Toutkoushian (1999) found male faculty spent 6% more time on research than female faculty and 6% less time on teaching than female faculty

  15. Other Countries • U.K. (Todd et al. (2008)) – found male faculty had a much more realistic view of how they would be evaluated (maybe because fewer women in higher levels to mentor other women) – found female faculty were more likely to work overtime on teaching because they had to while male faculty were more likely to work overtime on research because they wanted to • Sweden (Viefers et al. (2006)) – climate not conducive to women faculty in physics • Van Anders (2004) - Canada

  16. Theory • Female faculty spend on the average more time on teaching than male faculty to meet the gendered expectations of their students • Overall, support climate not as good for female faculty and they are not kept as informed (maybe because fewer women at higher levels to mentor other women) • As student ratings of instruction increase for female faculty, their salary will decrease with the opposite being true for male faculty

  17. Changes in Percentages of Women • Mid 90’s – Approximately 3% of full professors were women at NDSU • Fall 2011 – 11% of full professors were women • Mid 90-s – 7-8% of associate professors were women • Fall 2011 – 30% of associate professors were women

  18. Work Life Survey – Early 2009 • All tenured and tenure-track faculty given a chance to respond • Faculty asked what percentages of time they presently spend on the areas of teaching, research and service and what percentages of time they would like to spend • Female faculty spent significantly more time on teaching than they wanted to compared to male faculty • Female faculty spent less time on research than they wanted to compared to male faculty (but not significant)

  19. University Climate Score • Responses to 20 items on a scale of 1 to 4 – respected by students, faculty, staff; feel isolated in the University; excluded from informal network; research is mainstream; etc. • Scores ranged from 20 to 80 (higher score better) with 50=“neutral” • Male – average 62.9 • Female – average 56.2 • Significant at .001 – no significant difference in STEM/Non-STEM

  20. Standardized SROI Scores • Z=(Class Average – Average for Class Level)/standard deviation of class level • Standardized SROI scores averaged for every faculty member teaching at least one class during 2008-2009 academic year • No significant differences in number of classes taught by male and female faculty (2.85, 2.73)

  21. Faculty Salary Study • Nine month faculty salaries regressed on Market Salary, Rank, Whether or not in STEM, Average standardized SROI score, gender, interaction between gender and SROI score, race, number of classes • Number of Classes, Race taken out of model – not significant

  22. Findings • As the average standardized SROI score for male faculty increased by 1 unit, salary increased by $1847 • As the average standardized SROI score for female faculty increased by 1 unit, salary decreased by $701.00

  23. ADVANCE/FORWARD • Working on the entire university climate to try to get everyone included • Course release grants – to give women more time to work on research • Promotion to Professor seminars – to make sure faculty know what is expected of them to be promoted • Mentoring groups – again to make sure faculty are aware of what they need to do • SROIs – trying to get these changed to become less gender biased

  24. Advance/Forward • The number of women in full professor levels has increased • The number of women at associate professor levels has increased • The number of women in leadership positions has increased

  25. Questions???????