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Health Promotion and Maintenance of Workability - National and Local Opportunities in Ensuring Employability of Aging Workforce -. Professor, MD, PhD. Matti Ylikoski Reykjavik 9.11. 2009. Contents of the presentation.

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slide1

Health Promotion and Maintenance of Workability - National and Local Opportunities in Ensuring Employability of Aging Workforce -

Professor, MD, PhD. Matti Ylikoski

Reykjavik 9.11. 2009

contents of the presentation
Contents of the presentation
  • The "why" of a National Strategy for "Promotion and Maintenance of Work Ability (PMWA)" – in Finland
  • The PMWA model, definitions and framework
  • PMWA in practice
  • Summary and conclusions

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide3
The "why" of a National Strategy for "Promotion and Maintenance of Work Ability (PMWA)" – in Finland

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide4

Population changes in Finland 1749 – 2008

Future demographic challenge was recognised

Emigration

Death- r

Immigrants

Birth – rate

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide5

Finnish population by age groups 1865 – 2008

(Central Statistical Bureau, Fi)

Future shortage of young workers became critical

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide6

Dependency Rate 1865 – 2050

Children and retired per 100 people at working age

Age

> 65 y

< 15 y

In 2008 in whole Finnish history the number of 65 years or older was higher than the number of those under 15 years old.

61 children; 10 retired

25 childern; 26 retired

28 children; 43 retired

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

important reasons for staying at work until statutory old age retirement statistics finland 2006
Important reasons for staying at work until statutory old-age retirement(Statistics Finland 2006)

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide8

> 20 years follow–up research for the why of the strategy- a cohort of 7000 municipal employees since 1981 - (Tuomi ym. 2005; Ilmarinen 1996)

  • Workplace supports work ability and health (and the business), if:
        • well organised, open communication and collaboration
        • opportunities to develop and influence,
        • managing over- and underloading
        • managing conflicts and insecurity at work
  • Mismatch between man and work varies with age and work
  • Work ability varies widely between branches and trades
        • work should be adjusted with flexibility through the life course
        • new abilities are needed for info-jobs and new technologies
        • retired, temporary hindered and unemployed have work ability still
        • return to work (sick pay; rehabilitation) needs support
  • Problems to appear:
        • economic depression with restructurings
        • agriculture and forestry, pulp and paper- and metal industries, transportation, construction, social services
        • vulnerable groups: women, handicapped, youngsters, unemployed aso.

 Work ability was seen as the most important asset of employees

in work life, where: health and functional capacity are basic

explanatory variables which influence to – and depend on

- other individual and work related factors,

such as workplace as an organisation and community.

 A systemic approach was needed !

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

workplace health promotion as a model to maintain and promote work ability a systemic approach
Workplace health promotion as a model to maintain and promote work ability - a systemic approach -
  • Health promotion are empowering activities which, aim:
    • to increase the opportunities and prerequisites of people in taking care of the health of them, their environment, in their community, and with the support of its social resources (WHO: Ottawa Charter 1986)
  • Workplace is ONE of the settings and "social arenas", which offer special opportunities to promote workers´ health an work ability:
    • as a community and a decision making system with resources for health and thus, for adjusting work for workers health, and
    • as an environment with particular exposures and thus, duties concerning to manage and combat against hazardous loadings.

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

f rom handicap orientation via balance model towards a multifactorial approach
 From "handicap" orientation - via balance model - towards a multifactorial approach

Individual with limited

abilities in regard of job demands

Individual in the work life context and "system"

Individual with

a handicap

(Work) Life

Organisation

Job

Individual

(Work) Life

Bio – Psycho – Social

"residual" work ability

Disability

Medical invalidity

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide11
Widening of the "Well-being at Work" concept (Hämäläinen 2008, Hanson 2007, Ylikoski ym. 2006, Kickbusch 2004, Whitelaw ym. 2001)
  • From pathogenic approach towards "salutogenic" view
      • what is dangerous to health  what is good for health and well-being
        • health as a resource in meeting life (conditions/environment)
  • From prevention towards promotion
      • risk factors  health and work ability determinants
      • protect and avoid  strengthen, support
      • reactive  predictive (proactive)
        • unemployment research  coping with transitions at work life
  • From objects for expert actions towards participation of the empowered people
      • individual lifestyle  population & organisational (setting) partnership strategies with empowered actors
      • general models and Good Practices  locally tailored solutions
      • specialized campaigns  continuous strategic integration and processes with committed actors
  • (Re)integration of well-being and productivity

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide12
2. The PMWA model, definitions and framework

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

work functional capacity and age are linked and there is lot to do ilmarinen 1999
Work, functional capacity and age are linked- and there is lot to do -(Ilmarinen 1999)

%

Functional capacity & competence

PROBLEM

Promote and maintain work ability

Reserve

Reserve

Job demands

Decrease job demands

Age

SOLUTIONS

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

pmwa rationale
PMWA: Rationale
  • PMWA operations were based on:
    • knowledge of aging,
    • physiological, psychosocial and health changes needing special emphasis due to aging of the work force and
    • knowledge for adjustment the work conditions according to the individual at his/her situation.
  • However, recently the whole life course and work career are considered as a challenge for the PMWA activities
    • qualifications needed at work are changing continuously
    • life course transitions challenge coping aptitudes regularly
    • organisational changes evoke individual support and adjustments

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide15

-

transfer to

decent job

Supporting career through the whole life course

(Vuori et al. 2007)

40+ workers

/

Unemployed and

kicked out

Successful

Senior

Vocational

training

To Job

  • promotion of career
  • prevention of burn out

re-employment

From School

to Work

Basic training

Towards

Work life

Pilot,

to be published

2009

Prevention of mental depression

-

promotion

Country

wide since 1997

of active

learning career

Published 2002

country wide

Published 2006,

disseminating

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

definition of the pmwa
Definition of the PMWA
  • Workplace activities aiming at promoting and maintaining the ability to work
    • include all measures,
    • that the employer and the employees as well as
    • the co-operative organizations at the workplace take in a united effort
    • to support the ability to work and to enhance the functional capacities of all persons active in working life
    • throughout their working careers

 Two-Partite Consensus with recommendation 1990

 Obligatory (employers duty) legislation 2001

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide17
3. PMWA in practice

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide18

Target areas and their "weight" in the PMWA measures

(Ilmarinen 2006)

Individual:

Health and functional capacity

Society

Family

PMWA

activities

Work and work environment:

Work conditions

Job content and demands

Subjective:

Values

Attitudes and motivation

Competence

Professional and social

Work community and organization

Community and organization

Management and leadership

Participation

Organizational learning

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide19

The organizational development axis in the PMWA

"four flies with one hit"

- how to act in practice ? -

Individual

PMWA

activities

Values and competence

Work and work environment

  • Work community and organization
  • empowering  self – esteem  health
  • participation  commitment  achievements more concrete
  • co – construction  organizational learning  social capital

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide20
From practical experiences, research and corporative collaboration towards legislation, wide programmes and good practices

Main activities in practice

  • PMWA in companies nationwide

and obligated for employers (2001 -)

  • "Work Ability Index" for assessment (1998 - )
  • "Flexible retirement" – legislation (2005 -)
  • "Age Management" – training (1999 -)
  • "Transition coping" – model (1997 - )

Practical experiences

  • Experts (OS&H)
  • Workers, managers, HR

Good Practices:

Experts (OS&H)

Work places

Nation wide

Programmes

  • Ministries
  • Social partners
  • Soc Sec Insur Co´s
  • Regional networks
  • Companies
  • NGO´s

Research

  • Long-term cohort
  • Surveys

Legislation

Social partners

  • Policies
  • Negotiations

Social partners

  • Agreements
  • Recommendations

1995 -

1980 -

1990 - 2001 – 2005 -

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

pmwa in operation improvements in team function and organization
PMWA in operation: Improvements in team function and organization

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

positive effects achieved
Positive effects achieved

Cooperation improved

Work environment improved

Physical fitness increased

Motivation to work higher

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide24

The benefits of PMWA is equivalent to it's costs (employers 1999 & 2005)

%

70

63

62

60

50

40

28

30

21

20

10

10

6

5

3

0

0

0

Very good

Fairly good

Fairly bad

Very bad

Can't say

(Work Ability Barometer 2005)

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide25

Expected effective retirement age for 50-year-olds

Nordic countries in 1996–2007

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide26

Expected effective retirement age for 30-year-olds

Nordic countries in 1996–2007

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide27

Expected effective retirement age for 30-year-olds

Nordic countries 1996–2007, females

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

employment rates of the 55 in the eu 15 2005
Employment rates of the 55+ in the EU-15, 2005

Stockholm- target

EU-15 average

Source: Employment in Europe 2006

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide29
Finland: Increase in the employment rate of ageing workers has been most prominent in the EU during the latest 15 years (18 % - units !!)

Employment rate

Age group

Statistics Finland 2006

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

pmwa activities in finland evaluative summary
PMWA Activities in Finland- evaluative summary
  • Amount of PMWA quite high with many positive effects
  • Versatile content of PMWA
  • High confidence to economical benefits:
    • good cost and benefit ratio,
    • follow – up of the cost – efficiency has increased
  • The role of OHS significant
  • SMEs need more support

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

slide31

Thank You for Your Attention !

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014

further readings
Further readings
  • Ministry of Social Affairs and Health & Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (2004): Good occupational health practice. A guide for planning and follow - up of occupational health services. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health & Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Helsinki. ISBN 951-802-566-5
  • Ilmarinen J. Towards a Longer Worklife ! Ageing and the quality of worklife in the European Union. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki 2005.
  • ILO: Tackling Global Crisis. Recovery through decent work policies. RepI(A) 2009
  • Vahtera J, Kivimäki M, Pentti J, Linna A, Virtanen M, Virtanen P, Ferrie JE.Organisational downsizing, sickness absence and mortality: the 10-Town prospective cohort study.British Medical Journal 2004; 328:555-557
  • Tuomi K, Ilmarinen J, Martikainen R et al.: Aging, work, life-style and work ability among Finnish municipal workers in 1981-1992. Scand J Work Environ Health 23 (1997): suppl 1, 58-65.
  • Vuori, J., Koivisto, P., Mutanen, P., Jokisaari, M., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2008). Towards Working Life: Effects of an intervention on mental health and transition to post-basic education. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 67-80.
  • Ylikoski M, et al. Health in the World of Work: workplace health promotion as a tool for improving and extending work life. Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 2006. (Reports of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2006:62)
  • Ylikoski M, Rantanen, J: The development of modern work organisations: a challenge to occupational safety and health. In Wirtschaftverlag NW (Ed): The future of working conditions: Tb / Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, 102: 289-297, Bremerhaven, 2000.

Prof. M Ylikoski, FIOH / 24.9.2014