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Earthquakes. What is an earthquake?. Defined as movements of the ground that are caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks along a fault move. Sudden slip on a fault Resulting ground shaking Radiated seismic energy caused by the slip Caused by volcanic or magmatic activity,

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what is an earthquake
What is an earthquake?
  • Defined as movements of the ground that are caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks along a fault move.
    • Sudden slip on a fault
    • Resulting ground shaking
    • Radiated seismic energy caused by the slip
  • Caused by volcanic or magmatic activity,
  • Caused by other sudden stress changes in the earth.
what causes earthquakes
What causes earthquakes?
  • Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Rocks near tectonic plate boundaries experience a great amount of stress.
    • Elastic deformation – rock stretches then reaches a breaking point, releasing energy.

Plate motion simulation

elastic rebound sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeformed shape
Elastic Rebound – sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeformed shape

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

slide5
Focus – point inside the Earth where the first motion of an earthquake beginsEpicenter – point on Earth’s surface above focus
seismic waves
Seismic Waves
  • Body Waves – waves that travel through the body of a medium
    • P Waves
    • S Waves
  • Surface Waves – waves that travel along the surface of a body rather than through the middle
    • Love Waves
    • Rayleigh Waves
primary waves p waves
Primary Waves (P Waves)
  • A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.
  • The first wave to arrive at an earthquake.
  • Particles of rock move in a back-and-forth direction that is parallel to the direction in which the waves are traveling.
  • Can move through solids, liquids and gases.

http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm

secondary waves s waves
Secondary Waves (S Waves)
  • Second fastest wave.
  • A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side.
  • Can only travel through solid material.

http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm

surface waves
Surface Waves

The surface waves are the slowest of the three earthquake wave types.

Two basic types of surface waves

  • Love Waves
  • Rayleigh Waves
slide11

1. L-waves or love waves.Complex motion. Up-and-down and side-to-side. Slowest. Causes damage to structures during an earthquake.2.Rayleigh waves involve rolling motions. A surface particle moves in a circle or ellipse in the direction of propagation.

using seismic waves to study earth s interior
Using Seismic Waves to Study Earth's Interior

Seismic Waves travel through the entire Earth

Both S and P waves travel throughout the body of the earth, and can be picked up by seismograph - machines that record earthquakes (ground vibrations) - anywhere in the world.

seismic waves as x rays to look inside the earth
Seismic waves as “x-rays” to look inside the earth
  • P-Waves travel through solid and liquid
slide15

Seismic waves as “x-rays” to look inside the earth

  • However, it turns out that S waves cannot travel through the core, and only P waves are recorded in some places:

S-Waves travel only through solids

using seismic waves to study earth s interior1
Using Seismic Waves to Study Earth's Interior
  • Seismic waves travel faster through denser material.
  • Because of this, the path traveled by a seismic wave is bent towards the surface.
  • Shadow zones are areas where there are no direct seismic waves from a particular earthquake.
earthquakes and tectonic environments
Earthquakes and Tectonic Environments

Fault zones form at plate boundaries because intense stress occurs there when the plates separate, collide, subduct, or slide past each other.

  • Convergent Oceanic Environments
    • Plates move toward each other and collide
    • Denser plate subducts
    • Top plate scrapes across subducting plate
    • Occurs between two oceanic plates or one oceanic plate and one continental plate
earthquakes and tectonic environments1
Earthquakes and Tectonic Environments
  • Divergent Oceanic Environments
    • Plates move away from each other
    • Oceanic lithosphere is pulling away from both sides of each ridge
    • Spreading motion causes earthquakes
earthquakes and tectonic environments2
Earthquakes and Tectonic Environments
  • Continental Environments
    • Continental plates converge, diverge, or move horizontally in opposite directions
    • Rock experiences stress – mountains form or earthquakes occur
seismograph
Seismograph Video

A seismograph is an instrument that records ground vibrations from earthquakes. Mechanical versions work by way of a large mass, freely suspended.

In the example on the left, a rotating drum records a red line on a sheet of paper. If the earth moves (in this case from left to right) the whole machine will vibrate too.

However, the large mass tends to stay still, so the drum shakes beneath the pen, recording a squiggle!

Seismograph
how do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake
How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake?
  • Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves
  • The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves
typical seismogram tracing of earthquake motion
Typical Seismogramtracing of earthquake motion

http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt

earthquake strength
Earthquake Strength

The intensity or strength of an earthquake is measured by seismologist in two main ways:

1.The Richter Scale

  • measures the amount of energy that an earthquake releases as ground motion
  • Each number of magnitude is 10x stronger than the number below it.
the moment magnitude scale
The Moment Magnitude Scale
  • Geologists use this

scale today

  • It’s a rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake based on the size of the fault area that moves, how far fault blocks move, and the rigidity of rocks.
  • Can be used for any kind of earthquakes, near or far
  • Some news reports may mention the Richter scale, but the magnitude number they quote is almost always the moment magnitude for that earthquake
modified mercalli scale
Modified Mercalli Scale
  • Measures the intensity of an earthquake
  • Ranges from I to XII
  • Based on common earthquake occurrences such as "noticeable by people" "damage to buildings" chimneys collapse" "fissures open in the ground”.
the modified mercalli scale
The Modified Mercalli Scale
  • Developed in the twentieth century to rate earthquakes according to their intensity
  • The intensity of an earthquake is the strength of ground motion in a given place
  • Is not a precise measurement
  • But, the 12 steps explain the damage given to people, land surface, and buildings
  • The same earthquake could have different Mercalli ratings because of the different amount of damage in different spots
  • XII is total destruction
  • The Mercalli scale uses Roman numerals to rank earthquakes by how much damage they cause
how are earthquakes measured mercalli intensity scale
How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale

Click Link for Interactive Demo http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/images/S_portfolio/Mercalli/Mercalli_Scale.swf

how earthquakes cause damage
How Earthquakes Cause Damage
  • The severe shaking provided by seismic waves can damage (building may sway or collapse) or destroy buildings and bridges, topple utility poles, and damage gas and water mains
  • With their side to side, up and down movement, S waves can damage or destroy buildings, bridges, and fracture gas mains.
tsunami giant ocean wave
Tsunami – giant ocean wave

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

formation of a tsunami waves get bigger as they move toward shore
Formation of a tsunamiwaves get bigger as they move toward shore

http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt

tsunami warning system
Tsunami Warning System

http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt

tsumani s attack
Tsumani’s Attack
  • Causes:
    • Undersea earthquakes
    • Landslides
    • Volcanic eruptions
earthquake safety
Earthquake Safety
  • Be prepared before an earthquake occurs
  • Know evacuation procedure
  • Stay calm
  • Protect yourself
  • Check for fire and other hazards
earthquake warning and forecasts
Earthquake Warning and Forecasts
  • Scientists study past earthquakes to predict future earthquakes
  • Still no reliable way to predict exactly when or where an earthquake will occur
  • Seismic Gaps – an area along a fault where relatively few earthquakes have recently but where strong earthquakes occurred in the past
slide40

San Francisco are built on sandy soil or fill. Many homes built on this type of soil were badly damaged during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

earthquake warning and forecasts1
Earthquake Warning and Forecasts
  • Seismic Gaps – an area along a fault where relatively few earthquakes have occurred recently but where strong earthquakes occurred in the past
  • Foreshocks – small earthquakes that can potentially precede an earthquake by a few seconds or a few weeks
  • Changes in Rocks
    • cracks filled with water
    • natural gas seepage