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Seeing Clearly Through Ink in Computer Science Courses. Roy P. Pargas Clemson University PLT 2007, Catania, Italy 24 May 2007. Where in the World is Clemson University?. Where is Clemson University?. PLT 2007, Catania, Italy. Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina. Overview.

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seeing clearly through ink in computer science courses

Seeing Clearly Through Ink in Computer Science Courses

Roy P. Pargas

Clemson University

PLT 2007, Catania, Italy

24 May 2007

slide2

Where in the World isClemson University?

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide3

Where is Clemson University?

PLT 2007, Catania, Italy

Clemson University

Clemson, South Carolina

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide4

Overview

  • MessageGrid
    • Web-based software tool to help promote interactivity in the classroom

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide5

Overview

  • MessageGrid
  • Clemson laptop mandate
  • Proposed Solution
  • Features
    • Grid, Clickers, Ink, Mobile,

Evaluating Online Discussions

  • Current and Future Work
  • Acknowledgements

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

2002 clemson laptop mandate
2002 Clemson Laptop Mandate
  • Every student is required to have a laptop computer with wireless access to the Internet

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

the challenge
The Challenge
  • How can instructors use the laptop computers to advantage in and out of the classroom?

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

our solution messagegrid
Our Solution: MessageGrid
  • Web-based
  • Basic grid: rows and columns
  • Instructor designs grid
  • Students post original submissions or replies to submissions
  • Anything displayed by a browser
    • Text, image, audio, video, animation, Ink, maps
  • Why use such a tool?
    • Student responses to in-class exercises, presentations, online discussions, student questions, feedback from students, …

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

gaining popularity
Gaining Popularity
  • Current Users:
    • English, Psychology, Nursing, Languages, Chemistry, Freshman Engineering, Mathematics, Performing Arts, Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering
  • Uses:
    • Recitation, reading assignment, collaborative writing, in-class exercises, PowerPoint presentation review, team project collaboration, faculty meetings

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

evolution
Evolution

Every semester since January 2004, more instructors use MessageGrid

At semester’s end, instructors discuss possible improvements

Suggestions with most instructor support are implemented

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features
Current MessageGrid Features

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide12

Current MessageGrid Features

Message

Grid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features1
Current MessageGrid Features

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students

Message

Grid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features2
Current MessageGrid Features

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students

Message

Grid

Clickers:

Assessment/Polling

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features3
Current MessageGrid Features

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students

Message

Grid

Clickers:

Assessment/Polling

Ink:

Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features4
Current MessageGrid Features

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students

Message

Grid

Clickers:

Assessment/Polling

Mobile:

Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid

Ink:

Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features5
Current MessageGrid Features

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions from students

Message

Grid

Discussion:

Rubric to facilitate evaluation of online discussions

Clickers:

Assessment/Polling

Mobile:

Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid

Ink:

Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide18

Current MessageGrid Features

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions

from students

(FIE 2005, ITiCSE 2006)

New!

Message

Grid

Discussion:

Rubric to facilitate evaluation of online discussions

Clickers:

Assessment/Polling

(SIGCSE 2006)

New!

Mobile:

Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid

Ink:

Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text

(PLT 2007)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current messagegrid features6
Current MessageGrid Features

FOCUS

Message

Grid

Ink:

Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text

(PLT 2007)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid ink
MessageGrid Ink
  • Students with Tablet PCs or WACOM Graphire Tablets can submit Ink answers to questions

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid ink1
MessageGrid Ink

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide22

MessageGrid Ink

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid ink2
MessageGrid Ink

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide24

Classroom Experiment

  • CPSC 212: Data Structures and Algorithms
    • Fall 2006
    • 26 students
    • Sophomore/Junior level
    • Computer Science, Math, Science Majors

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide25

Classroom Experiment

  • CPSC 212: Data Structures and Algorithms
    • Fall 2006
    • 26 students
    • Sophomore/Junior level
    • Computer Science, Math, Science Majors
  • WACOM Graphire Tablets

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

using wacom graphire tablets
Using WACOM Graphire Tablets

Today, not many Clemson

students have Tablet PCs

WACOM Graphire tablets

provided at start of each class

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide27

Classroom Experiment

  • Much research on active vs. passive learning
    • Reduced lecture and active learning
    • Theory: learning is best achieved when students actively participate in learning process

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide28

Classroom Experiment

  • Much research on active vs. passive learning
    • Reduced lecture and active learning
    • Theory: learning is best achieved when students actively participate in learning process
  • Suggested to promote active learning
    • Collaborative activities after brief lecture
    • Anonymous quizzes at end of activity period
    • Team-answered test questions

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

classroom experiment
Classroom Experiment
  • Modified course lecture/lab structure
  • Four types of in-class exercises
    • Mathematics Review
    • Data Structure Behavior
    • Code Development
    • Analysis of Algorithms

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide30

Mathematics Review

  • First week of semester, variety of exercises
  • Some answers were keyed, others Inked

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

mathematics review
Mathematics Review
  • First week of semester, variety of exercises
  • Some answers were keyed, others Inked

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide32

Data Structure Behavior

  • Example: Enter the following values into a binary search tree: 6, 9, 13, 8, 5, 7, …
  • Some answers keyed, others Inked

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

data structure behavior
Data Structure Behavior
  • Example: Enter the following values into a binary search tree: 6, 9, 13, 8, 5, 7, …
  • Some answers keyed, others Inked

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide34

Code Development

  • Key a recursive method that counts the leaves of a binary tree
  • Ink a recursive algorithm that counts the number of nodes with exactly one child

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

code development
Code Development
  • Key a recursive method that counts the leaves of a binary tree
  • Ink a recursive algorithm that counts the number of nodes with exactly one child

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide36

Analysis of Algorithms

  • Analyze the Tower of Hanoi problem
  • Had not yet covered Proof by Induction
  • Students allowed to key or Ink answers (about 1/3 used Ink)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

analysis of algorithms
Analysis of Algorithms
  • Analyze the Tower of Hanoi problem
  • Had not yet covered Proof by Induction
  • Students allowed to key or Ink answers (about 1/3 used Ink)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide38

Assessment: Preferences (Inking vs. Keying)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide39

Assessment: Preferences (Class Format)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

preferred percentage for lecture
Preferred Percentage for Lecture

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

ease of use
Ease of Use

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

using messagegrid ink in algebra and calculus courses
Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses
  • Tablet PC-Enabled Active Learning in Mathematics: A First Study
  • Presentation by Marilyn Reba and Barbara Weaver at 4:30 pm today

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide43

Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide44

Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide45

Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide46

Using MessageGrid Ink in Algebra and Calculus Courses

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide47

Current / Future Work

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide48

Current / Future Work

Basic Grid: Feedback/submissions

from students

(FIE 2005, ITiCSE 2006)

New!

Message

Grid

Discussion:

Rubric to facilitate evaluation of online discussions

Clickers:

Assessment/Polling

(SIGCSE 2006)

New!

Mobile:

Images, video, audio, GPS, and text in a portable, handheld grid

Ink:

Submitting diagrams and equations, rather than text

(PLT 2007)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current future work
Current / Future Work
  • Refine MessageGrid Mobile
  • Refine MessageGrid Discussion
  • Support Mathematics (Algebra and Calculus) use of MessageGrid Ink
  • Provide access to MessageGrid to limited number of non-Clemson faculty
    • If interested, please contact Roy Pargas, pargas@clemson.edu

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

2003-2007 (continuing) faculty fellowship grant from Clemson University ETS-OTEI Laptop Faculty Development Program

2003 Microsoft Content and Curriculum Development Grant (Tom Healy, Mgr.)

2005 Microsoft Research Tablet PC and Computing Curriculum Grant (Jane Prey, Mgr.)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

thank you for your kind attention
Thank you for your kind attention.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide52

Where is Clemson University?

PLT 2007, Catania, Italy

Clemson University

Clemson, South Carolina

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

how can messagegrid be used
How Can MessageGrid be Used?

Feedback from students

Message

Grid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

how can messagegrid be used1
How Can MessageGrid be Used?

As an assessment/polling tool (Software Clickers)

Analyze algorithms below and select among: (1) A is O(n log n) and B is O(n), (2) A is O(log n) and B is O(n2), (3) A is O(n log n) and B is O(n2), (4) A is O(n) and B is O(log n), (5) A is O(log log n) and B is O(n2), (6) None of the above.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

how can messagegrid be used2
How Can MessageGrid be Used?

Results

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

recursion exercises

Student 1

Student 1

Student 1

Student 2

Student 2

Student 2

Recursion Exercises

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

pre lecture reading assignment
Pre-Lecture Reading Assignment

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

software clickers
Software Clickers
  • Eric Mazur
    • Harvard University
    • Physics for non-majors
    • Hardware clickers
  • How to Become a Millionaire
    • Lifeline question to audience

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide62

Algorithm Analysis Question

Analyze algorithms below and select among: (1) A is O(n log n) and B is O(n), (2) A is O(log n) and B is O(n2), (3) A is O(n log n) and B is O(n2), (4) A is O(n) and B is O(log n), (5) A is O(log log n) and B is O(n2), (6) None of the above.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

algorithm analysis results
Algorithm Analysis Results

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

algorithm analysis question revisited after peer discussion
Algorithm Analysis Question Revisited after Peer-discussion

Correct answer: 3

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

towers of hanoi question
Towers of Hanoi (Question)
  • Brief applet demonstration of the solution to the problem for sizes n=3 and n=4
  • Question: How many moves does it take to solve the general n-disk problem?
  • Options:

(1) 2n−1, (2) 2n−1−1, (3) 2n−1+1, (4) 2n+1,

(5) 2n+1−1, (6) 2n+1+1, (7) 2n, (8) 2n−1,

(9) 2n+1, (10) None of the above.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide66

Towers of Hanoi (Didn’t show these results until after 2nd question asked)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide67

Towers of Hanoi (Revisited)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

mystery recursion question
Mystery Recursion Question
  • What does the following recursive algorithm do?

public static int Mystery(TreeNode t) {

if (t == null)

return 0;

if ((t.left != null) || (t.right != null)) {

return Mystery(t.left) + Mystery(t.right);

else

return 1;

} // Mystery

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

mystery recursion options
Mystery Recursion Options
  • Options:
    • Counts total number of nodes in the tree,
    • Counts number of interior nodes,
    • Counts number of nodes with one child,
    • Adds the values of all nodes,
    • Adds the values of all interior nodes,
    • Adds the values of all leaves,
    • None of the above.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

mystery recursion algorithm
Mystery Recursion Algorithm

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

mystery recursion revisited
Mystery Recursion (Revisited)
  • Sensed palpable unease among students
  • When asked “Who would like to change their answer? And from what to what?”
    • Six raised their hands
    • Of whom
      • Four from #1 to #7
      • Two from #2 to #7

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

mystery algorithm revisited
Mystery Algorithm Revisited

- 4 = 24

- 2 = 1

+ 6 = 17

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide73

Distance Teaching / Learning

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide74

Conducting Class Remotely

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide75

Conducting Class Remotely

Hotel Les Aiglons

Chamonix, France

15 March 2007 7:00 pm

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide76

Conducting Class Remotely

McAdams 119

Clemson University South Carolina, USA

Hotel Les Aiglons

Chamonix, France

15 March 2007 2:00 pm

15 March 2007 7:00 pm

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide77

Conducting Class Remotely

McAdams 119

Clemson University

Hotel Les Aiglons

Chamonix, France

Desktop Sharing

(Breeze Live)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide78

Conducting Class Remotely

McAdams 119

Clemson University

Hotel Les Aiglons

Chamonix, France

Desktop Sharing

(Breeze Live)

VoIP (Skype)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide79

Conducting Class Remotely

McAdams 119

Clemson University

Hotel Les Aiglons

Chamonix, France

Desktop Sharing

(Breeze Live)

VoIP (Skype)

Interactivity

(MessageGrid)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide80

Chamonix, FR, My Hotel RoomMarch 15, 2007 ~7:30 pm

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide81

Chamonix, FR, My Hotel RoomMarch 15, 2007 ~7:30 pm

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide82

Chamonix, FR, My Hotel RoomMarch 15, 2007 ~7:30 pm

Students Absent

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide83

Clemson Laptop Mandate

  • Every student is required to have a laptop computer with wireless access to the Internet
  • Update:

Fall 2006, Tablet

PC among

university recom-

mended units

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid ink3
MessageGrid Ink
  • Students with Tablet PCs can submit Ink answers to questions

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide85

MessageGrid Ink

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid ink4
MessageGrid Ink

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid ink5
MessageGrid Ink

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

online discussion board
Online Discussion Board
  • Alternative views of grid content
    • Tree-structured content, reflecting discussion threads

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide90

Online Discussion Board

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide91

Tree-Structured View Discussion Board

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

student evaluation
Student Evaluation

Agree Disagree N/A

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide93

Current Projects

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current project messagegrid mobile
Current Project:MessageGrid Mobile
  • Involves:
    • Smartphones
    • PDAs
    • GPS receivers
    • Wireless and bluetooth communication

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

available devices smartphones
Available Devices: Smartphones

Audiovox XV6700

Palm Treo 700w

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

available devices pda gps receiver
Available DevicesPDA, GPS Receiver

Pharos Bluetooth GPS Receiver

Dell Axim X50 with GPS receiver

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide97

MessageGrid Mobile

  • Instructor gives field assignment to students

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid mobile
MessageGrid Mobile

MessageGrid Server

1. Students download grid onto handheld

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid mobile1
MessageGrid Mobile

MessageGrid Server

2. Students collect info, image, audio, video, GPS location

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid mobile2
MessageGrid Mobile

MessageGrid Server

3. Students upload grid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

messagegrid mobile3
MessageGrid Mobile

MessageGrid Server

1. Download grid

3. Upload grid

2. Collect info, photo, audio, video, GPS location

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide102

MessageGrid Mobile

  • Instructor conducts class discussion of results collected by students

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide104

Current Project: WHO Policy Development Tool

Over 35 countries around the world, some in Asia, some in Eastern Europe, some in the Americas, but most in sub-Saharan Africa, contribute health information through a web-based survey to a database housed in Clemson.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide105

Current Project: WHO Policy Development Tool

The information is processed in Clemson under control of researchers based at WHO, Geneva

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide106

Current Project: WHO Policy Development Tool

Results are made available by WHO through MessageGrid to participating countries. Discussion among countries conducted through MessageGrid.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

current future work1
Current / Future Work
  • Refine MessageGrid Mobile
  • Refine WHO Policy Development Tool
  • Provide access to MessageGrid to limited number of non-Clemson faculty
    • If interested, please contact Roy Pargas, pargas@clemson.edu

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

acknowledgments1
Acknowledgments

2003-2007 faculty fellowship grant from Clemson University ETS-OTEI Laptop Faculty Development Program

2003 Microsoft Content and Curriculum Development Grant (Tom Healy, Mgr.)

2005 Microsoft Research Tablet PC and Computing Curriculum Grant (Jane Prey, Mgr.)

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

thank you for your kind attention1
Thank you for your kind attention.

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide110

Where is Clemson University?

WBE 2007, Chamonix, France

Clemson University

Clemson, South Carolina

Roy Pargas

Clemson University

pargas@clemson.edu

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

origin
Origin
  • Laptop Faculty Development Program
    • Small groups (6-8 faculty members) meet weekly
    • Share ideas on how they are changing the way they teach using laptops, Tablet PCs, handheld devices, iPods
    • Interdisciplinary
      • English, Psychology, Math, Experimental Statistics, Chemistry, Computer Science, Nursing, Spanish, Mechanical Engineering, Sociology, Performing Arts, Administration

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

original idea musicgrid
Original Idea: MusicGrid
  • Andrew Levin, Professor, Department of Performing Arts
    • December 2003
    • 12 music categories (rows)
    • 2-4 movements (columns)
    • Each student given specific listening assignment

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide113

MusicGrid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

musicgrid
MusicGrid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide115

MusicGrid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide116

MusicGrid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

slide117

MusicGrid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy

spring 2004 musicgrid was born
Spring 2004MusicGrid Was Born
  • Word got out
  • Other faculty (Chemistry, Nursing, Languages, English, Administration) wanted to use MusicGrid
  • MusicGrid became MessageGrid

PLT 2007 May 24, 2007 Catania, Italy