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The Eukaryotes. What makes a eukaryote? Why are these infestations/infections important?. Fungi Algae Protozoa Helminths Arthropods. Fungi. Mycology is the study of fungi. Fungal infections are increasing Are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic Chemoheterotrophs.

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the eukaryotes

The Eukaryotes

What makes a eukaryote?

Why are these infestations/infections important?

  • Algae
  • Protozoa
  • Helminths
  • Arthropods
  • Mycology is the study of fungi.
  • Fungal infections are increasing
  • Are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic Chemoheterotrophs.
  • Decomposers that are parasites of plants.
fungi characteristics
Fungi Characteristics
  • Thallus consists of filaments called hyphae, a mass of hyphae is mycelium.
  • Yeasts are unicellular fungi.
  • Some yeast can change morphology are mold like at 25’C
  • Classified according to the sexual structure that is formed.
  • Grow in acidic, low moisture aerobic environments.
  • Can metabolize complex carbs.
  • Unicellular fungi
  • Fission yeasts divide symmetrically
  • Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically

Figure 12.3

  • Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C

Figure 12.4

  • The fungal thallus consists of hyphae; a mass of hyphae is a mycelium.

Figure 12.2

asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
  • Conidia or conidiospores

Figure 12.5a

asexual reproduction1
Asexual Reproduction
  • Arthroconidia

Figure 12.5b

asexual reproduction2
Asexual Reproduction
  • Blastoconidia

Figure 12.5c

asexual reproduction3
Asexual Reproduction
  • Chlamydoconidia

Figure 12.5d

asexual reproduction4
Asexual Reproduction
  • Sporangiospores

Figure 12.5e

sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Three phases:
    • Plasmogamy: Haploid donor cell nucleus (+) penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell (–)
    • Karyogamy: + and – nuclei fuse
    • Meiosis: Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores)
sexual spores
Sexual Spores
  • Zygospore: Fusion of haploid cells produces one zygospore

Figure 12.6

sexual spores1
Sexual Spores
  • Ascospore: Formed in a sac (ascus).

Figure 12.7

sexual spores2
Sexual Spores
  • Basidiospore: Formed externally on a pedestal (basidium)

Figure 12.8

some fungal diseases
Some Fungal Diseases
  • Systemic mycoses are infections within the body may affect many organ systems.
  • Subcutaneous under skin.
  • Cutaenous is in skin nails and hair ect.
  • Superficial mycoses on only exterior parts.
  • Opportunistic: aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus, Candidiasis Candida
economic effects of fungi
Economic Effects of Fungi.
  • Many are used for production of food and beverages.
  • Biological control of pests.
  • Mold spoilage of fruits grains and vegetables.
  • Diseases in plants.
  • Infections in fuel lines fungal mats.
  • Degradation of cellulose materials.
treatments of fungal infections
Treatments of Fungal Infections
  • Amphotericin B destroys membrane used on Systemic fungal infections.
  • Griseofulvin (inhibit mitotic microtubules) on many skin fungi.
  • Tolnaftate (Athletes foot)
  • Can you think of any others?
  • Mutualistic combination of alga and fungus.
  • One is photosynthetic, on is the holdfast absorber.
  • Colonize habitats that are unsuitable for either the alga or the fungus alone.
  • Used for pigments and air quality indicators.
  • Unicellular filamentous are Multicellular.
  • Most algae live in aquatic environments.
  • Eukaryotic photoautotrophs.
  • Thallus or body is stipe, holdfast and blades.
  • Reproduce sexually and asexually by fragmentation.
  • Most reproduce sexually.
  • Photoautrophs that produce oxygen.
  • Classified by structure and pigments.
characterized by color
Characterized by color
  • Brown algae (kelp)
  • Red algae grow at deeper levels.
  • Green algae similar to plants.
  • Diatoms unicellular produce neurotoxins.
  • Dinoflagellates also cause neurotoxins.
role in nature
Role in Nature
  • Primary producers in aquatic food chains.
  • Produce most of molecular oxygen
  • Much of our petroleum is fossil remains of plankton.
  • Many unicellular algae are symbionts in animals.
  • Are unicellular eukaryotic Chemoheterotrophs.
  • Found in soil, water and as normal microbiota
some that cause disease
Some that cause disease.
  • Archaezoa lack mitochondria and have flagella. Trichomonas and Giardia
  • Microsporidia lack mitochondria and microtubules cause diarrhea in AIDS patients
  • Rhizopodia are amoeba, include Entamoeba and Acanthamoeba
more disease
More Disease
  • Apicomplexa can penetrate host tissue include Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium
  • Ciliophora move by means of cilia Balantidium coli is a human parasitic ciliate
  • Euglenozoa move by means of flagella and lack sexual reproduction include Trypanosoma
characteristics of protozoa
Characteristics of Protozoa
  • Vegetative form is a trophozoite
  • Asexual reproduction is by fission, budding, or schizogony
  • Sexual reproduction by conjugation
  • Some produce cysts
medically important phyla of protozoa
Medically Important Phyla of Protozoa
  • Archaezoa
  • Microspora
  • Amoebozoa
  • Apicomplexa
  • Ciliophora
  • Euglenozoa
  • No mitochondria
  • Multiple flagella
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage)

Figure 12.16b


Figure 12.16c, d

  • No mitochondria
  • Nonmotile
  • Intracellular parasites
  • Nosema
  • Move by pseudopods
  • Entamoeba
  • Acanthamoeba

Figure 12.17a

  • Nonmotile
  • Intracellular parasites
  • Complex life cycles
  • Plasmodium
  • Babesia
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Cyclospora

Clinical Focus, p. 355


Clinical Focus, p. 355

  • Move by cilia
  • Complex cells
  • Balantidium coli is the only human parasite

Figure 12.19

  • Move by flagella
  • Euglenoids
    • Photoautotrophs

Figure 12.20

  • Move by flagella
  • Hemoflagellates
    • Trypanosoma spp.
      • Sleeping sickness
      • Chagas’ disease

Figure 23.22

  • Move by flagella
  • Photoautotrophs
    • Euglenoids
  • Chemoheterotrophs
    • Naegleria
      • Flagellated and amoeboid forms, meningoencephalitis
    • Trypanosoma
      • Undulating membrane, transmitted by vectors
    • Leishmania
      • Flagellated form in sand fly vector, ovoid form in vertebrate host
slime molds
Slime Molds
  • Not obvious pathogens.
  • Cellular slime molds resemble amoebas and ingest bacteria by phagocytosis.
  • Plasmodial slime molds consist of multinucleated mass of protoplasm that engulfs organic debris and bacteria as it moves.
  • All can produce large fruiting bodies.
  • Parasitic flatworms belong to the Phylum Platyhelminthes.
  • Parasitic roundworms belong to the Phylum Nematoda
characteristics of helminths
Characteristics of Helminths
  • Are Multicellular animals, few are parasites.
  • Parasites have modified life cycles
    • Only the adult is found in the definitive host.
    • Larval stage requires an intermediate host.
  • Can be monoecious or dioecious
  • Flatworms, lack a digestive system obtain food by absorption across the outer surface.
  • Flukes and trematodes have suckers that help them attach and feed on host tissue.
  • Cestode or tapeworm consists of scolex and proglottids.
    • Definitive host for beef tapeworm (cattle are intermediate)
    • Human definitive and intermediate host for pork tapeworm.
    • Intermediate for Echinococcus granulosus the definitive hosts are dogs, wolves and foxes.

Figure 12.27

  • Roundworms have a complete digestive system.
  • Infect humans with their eggs are Enterobius vermicularis pinworm and Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Necator americanus (hookworm)
  • Jointed legged animals, including ticks and insects belong to the Phylum Arthropoda
  • Ones that carry disease are called vectors
  • Can eliminate disease be eliminating vectors.
Antiprotozoan Drugs
    • Chloroquine inhibits DNA synthesis, Malaria
    • Metronidazole, damages DNA, Entamoeba, Trichomonas
  • Antihelminthic Drugs
    • Niclosamide, prevents ATP generation in mitochondria, Tapeworm infections.