Unit 12 Extension of Meaning 1
a.Extension of meaning b.Restriction of meaning c.Degeneration of meaning d.Elevation of meaning 2
Extension of Meaning It is also called widening of meaning or generalization. It’s a process by which a word which originally had a specialized meaning has now become generalized.
Four kinds of extension A. From specific to general B. From proper nouns to common nouns C.From concrete to abstract D.From technical terms to general words
A. From specific to general Example Picture: originally: a painting or drawing
The present meaning a photograph a cinematic picture an x-ray picture a TV picture a radio-telescope picture any picture
More Examples rubbish Originally: rubble (碎石） Now: anything worthless
B. From proper nouns to common nouns antonomasia the use of a proper noun to convey a general idea
Example Sandwich: It now denotes a popular fast food. It originates from John Montague, Fourth earl of Sandwich in 18th -century England. He was so fond of gambling that he often forgot his meals. He often ordered slices of bread with thick pieces of roast beef stuffed between them be brought to him so he could eat while playing. Later, people used his name to refer to all similar food.
Tantalize Tantalus Greek Myth: a king punished for his misdeeds by having to stand in water that recedes when he tries to drink it and under fruit that moves away as he reaches for it.
Greek myth: a giant with 100 eyes. After he was killed, his eyes were transferred to the Peacock’s tail Argus Example: We have decided it is impossible to cheat when that Argus-eyed pro- fessor gives an exam Argus-eyed : keen-sighted; observant
Narcissus • Narcissus: Greek myth: a beautiful youth who fell in love with his ref-lection in a pool, hence the word : narcissism and the meaning:an interest in or admiration for oneself.
Munchausen He was a German soldier. After his retirement from his service in the Russian Army against the Turks, he told exaggerated stories of his campaigning adventures,thus the meaning:a person who boasts;exaggerated.
Pinchbeck Christopher Pinchbeck was an British jeweler. He invented an alloy of copper, zinc formerly used for cheap jewellery, hence the meaning: specious and spurious goods.
Frankenstein Frankenstein is a character in the novel written by famous British woman writer Mary W. Shelley. He is a medical researcher, who created a robot monster, brought it to life and finally was killed by the monster.
专有名词普通话与特定的历史事件有关： “Watergate”源指美国华盛顿特区综合大厦。1972年6月17日夜间，共和党争取总统连任委员会有关人员潜入大厦内民主党全国委员会总部而被捕，暴露了共和党政府在总统竞选中的非法活动，导致美国历史上首次总统辞职，现泛指“丑闻”。 见：英语与社会： p.288
专有名词普通话与特定的科技事件有关： Louis Pasteur is a French chemist and biologist. His researches showing that the fermentation of milk and wine was due to the multiplication of bacteria and other microorganisms led to the discovery of the role of microorganism in human and animal disease. From these findings he developed immunization by inoculation of attenuated microbes, and the process of pasteurization. 见：英语与社会：p.288
Pasteurization is a process which renders milk free of disease-producing bacteria and help to prevent it from spoiling without destroying the vitamins or changing the taste. It involves heating the milk to 1450-168F for 30 minutes. To pasteurize is to sterilize by pasteurization.
James Watt（瓦特）is a Scottish engineer who made fundamental improvements to the Newcomen steam engine, leading to the widespread use of steam power in mines, factories etc. In partnership with Mathew Boulton, Watt built may engines at their foundry in Birmingham. The unit of power is named after him.
Words of this group also include ampere, farad, ohm, volt, watt from French physicist Ampere, British physicist Faraday, German physicist Ohm, Italian physicist Volta and Scottish inventor Watt respectively
与经济活动有关： 这类专有名词常为商标专有名。Walkman原来是Sony公司“随身听”的注册商标，在激烈的商业活动竞争中脱颖而出成为名牌。由于它家喻户晓，使它在人们心目中失去了一种专利商标，被用户作为“随身听”的代名词去泛指一切“随身听”产品。 见：英语与社会：p.288-289
Words like nylon, orlon, dacron, rayon were originally tradenames and are now used to denote the four types of fabric.
与体育活动有关： 生活节奏的加快，生活竞争的加剧使得体育专业术语大量被用于日常生活之中： 见：英语与社会：p.289
be out in left field:棒球术语：左外场， 位于外场防卫位置，语义泛化后指：“失去理智的”，“错误的”等。 • cover the bases:补垒: 可泛指“仔细考虑问题、建议、事情等每一个细节以确保万无一失”。 见：英语与社会：p.289
strike out:棒球术语，“三击未中，击球员出局”，现可指“努力失败”。 load the bases:跑满垒：形容“任务即将被完成”。 hit a home run:本垒打：泛指“取 得巨大成功”。 见：英语与社会：p.289
见：英语与社会：p.289 throw a curve ball:打出曲线球，这种球在接手接球一刹那会拐弯飞出：形容“采用欺骗手段使某人大吃一惊”。 call the play:作裁判：形容“承担有决定权的职责”。
get in a huddle:在橄榄球比赛前运动员紧紧围在一起商量和决定场上进攻和防守的站位和人员安排，现在形容“举行非正式会议传达有关策略性问题”。 见：英语与社会： p.289
run with it:带球向得分点跑去： • 形容“开始实施一个计划或开 • 始着手某个事务”等。 见：英语与社会 p.289
专有名词充当普通动词，例如： He svengalied us into accepting his opinions. 他采用斯文加利式的骗术使我们接受了他的观点。 Svengali (斯文加利)系英语小说家George du Maurier所著小说Trilby中的音乐家。He is a person who controls another’s mind, usually with sinister intentions.
英语普通化专有名词的常见特征： 专有名词充当普通名词使用，例如： The United States is raising a Frankenstein by providing hardware to that country. （美国向那个国家提供军事武器，到头来只会作法自毙。） Frankenstein是英国作家 Mary Wollstonecraft-Shelley 于1818年所著小说中的生理学研究专家。他创造了一个怪物，结果被这个怪物所毁灭。 见：英语与社会：p.290
专有名词与普通名词拼缀构成动词，例如： California’s Republican legislature gerrymandered the 26th…to make it overwhelmingly Democratic and turn four adjoining districts into Republican strongholds. Gerrymander: to divide the constituencies of a voting area so as to give one party an unfair advantage; to manipulate or adapt to one’s advantage. 见：英语与社会：p.290
“Gerrymander” comes from Elbridge Gerry, a U.S. politician + (sala)mander(蝾螈；）; from the salamander-like outline of an electoral district reshaped for political purposes while Gerry was governor of Massachusetts 见：英语与社会：p.290
专有名词与动词词缀连用构成派生动词 ? Hooverize: vt 节约（粮食等）由Hoover + ize 派生而来。 见：英语与社会：p.291
Herbert Clark Hoover was a U.s. Statesman, 31st president of the U.S.. He organized relief for Europe during and after World War I. As president he made great efforts to reduce government expenses and lost favour after his failure to alleviate the effects of the Depression.
When proper nouns are commonized, many of them have lost their original identity: the initial letter may not be capitalized as already shown; these words can take suffixes –ic, ian, -al, -ist,-ese,-ish, -esque to form different words.
Irenic( peace-loving) comes from Irene Stentorian( uncommonly loud) comes from Stentor, whose voice is loud Morphine comes from Morpheus, the god of sleep Solecism comes from Soloi, an Athenian colony of Cilicia where the inhabitants spoke a corrupt form of Greek
Procrustean: It comes from Procrustes, a giant of Attica who tortured travellers by stretching or cutting off their limbs to make them fit his bed, hence ruthless in trying to force conformity.
这类专有名词转为普通动词在科技英语中尤为常见，尤其是商品名牌商标的动词化，例如：这类专有名词转为普通动词在科技英语中尤为常见，尤其是商品名牌商标的动词化，例如： “Hoover”, “Whiteout”, “Mace” are the trademarks respectively for a type of vacuum cleaner “真空吸尘器”，a white correcting fluid “白色涂改液”，and a liquid causing tears and nausea, used as a spray for riot control, “梅斯催泪毒气” 见：英语与社会：p.291
to hoover a floor用真空吸尘器吸地板上的灰尘 to white out a mistake用白色涂改液涂改错误 to mace demonstrators向游行示威者喷射梅斯气
专有名词通过转类法转为普通形容词: Mickey Mouse: the name of a cartoon character created by Walter Disney, known for his simple-minded attitudes,hen the meaning:ineffective, trivial and insignificant
例如： Two days for a 226-mile race is Mickey Mouse. 两天跑完226英里的赛程是轻而易举的事。 a mickey mouse college course 一门容易学的大学课程
90年代以前，根据美国1946年的Lantham Act， 在美国专利局注册商标达50万。美国每年用于宣传产品所需金额为50多亿美元。 见：英语与社会： p.292
在美国，“Coke”, “Kleenex”, “Xerox”, “Jell-o” “Scotch Tape”为阻止商标名的普通化先后诉诸法庭，如果说以上商标名通过法律途径在一定的程度上保护了自己的产品名的 “专有”,那么King-Sealy与Du Pont两家公司就自己的产品名“Thermos” 以及“Cellophane”普通化一事诉诸法庭要求保护，却遭到了法庭的驳回。 见：英语与社会：p.292
理由是法庭调查结果显示绝大多数消费者认为 “Thermos”指任何一种“保温瓶”， “Cellophane” 可指任何一种此类产品。 见：英语与社会： p.292
事实上，败诉的不只是 “Thermos” 和“Cellophane”两名牌，先后败诉的还有 “Aspirin”, “Kerosine”, “Celluloid”, “Nylon”, “Lanolin”等商品名牌。
1）专有名词商标名具有浓厚的描绘性特征： • Dry Ice: 干冰，固态二氧化碳 • Shredded Wheat: 脆麦面条 • Mineral Oil:矿物油 • Corn Flakes: 玉米片 见：英语与社会：p.292-293