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Announcements. TONIGHT!11/21, 6-10pm – Open Mic Fundraiser for Typhoon Victims @ Filipino Food and Bakery. All proceeds go to National Alliance for Filipino Concerns! . Changes to syllabus: T 11/26: Homebound , Ch 6 Finals Study Guide

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  • TONIGHT!11/21, 6-10pm – Open Mic Fundraiser for Typhoon Victims @ Filipino Food and Bakery. All proceeds go to National Alliance for Filipino Concerns!
  • Changes to syllabus:
    • T 11/26:
      • Homebound, Ch6
      • Finals Study Guide
    • T 12/3: Homebound, Ch 7
    • Th 12/5: Homebound, Ch8 and Silent Sacrifices (2001)
    • T 12/10: Homebound, Ch 9
differential inclusion

Differential Inclusion

Race, Gender, &

Resisting Homelessness

macro micro
MACRO & micro
  • Macro forces of post-65 Philippine immigration:
    • US imperialism
    • US neocolonialism
    • Marcos Dictatorship
    • Cold War Liberalism
  • Macro forces always exist in tension with micro forces
    • individual desire and agency plus familial considerations
    • issues of race, class, & gender
forces of homelessness
forces of homelessness
  • racism links macro forces of immigration to forces of homelessness encountered after immigration
  • Racist perceptions of Filipinos keep them apart from the American nation yet simultaneously include them
differential inclusion1
differential inclusion
  • Why would a group of people be integral to a nation only because they can be subordinated (47)?
  • How are Filipinos integral to US national economy and power ?
  • How are Filipinos integral to US culture and identity?
dichotomous identities
Dichotomous Identities

“…neither imperialism nor colonialism is a simple act of economic accumulation and acquisition. They are also subject-constituting projects, supported and impelled by impressive ideological formations that designate certain countries and people as requiring and even beseeching domination from the more ‘civilized’ ones… the Philippine-American war and the subsequent colonization of the Philippines constituted not only economic or territorial but also subject-making projects – fashioning both the American and the Filipino subjects in ways that were, and continue to be, mutually implicated in each other” (50)

to define self you must also define the other

self other
self & other









nation  race  gender & sexuality

u s masculinity conquest
U.S. Masculinity & Conquest
  • just as race is a social construction so is gender
    • gender norms affect and are affected by social, political, & economic contexts
  • race and gender are not equivalent but are entwined
    • Ex: the hypermasculine black male versus the hyperfeminine Asian woman
  • macro forces of 1898:
    • closing of western frontier
    • urbanization& industrialization
    • black emancipation& enfranchisement
    • women’s suffrage

War and conquest become demonstration and proof of American masculinity.

r acialized sexuality
Racialized Sexuality
  • First major wave of Filipino immigration into US:
    • almost 150,000 nationally by 1920
    • 94% male, agricultural peasant class and under the age of 30
    • subject to anti-miscegenation acts, alien land laws, & de facto segregation
  • from “little brown brothers” to “little brown monkeys”
  • “When Filipino men refused to be just working bodies and instead flaunted their sexual bodies, they were racialized as sexually threatening” (67)
  • transnational home making as survival strategy – a response to enforced homelessness ever since first wave of Filipino immigration
transnational homes families
transnational homes & families
  • Filipinos were transnational even before they left their homeland
    • English education system, popular culture, American commodities & businesses, military presence
  • returning “home” can provide validation and social status denied in U.S. (87)
    • one is always Filipino in the US, but one becomes American in the Philippines
  • remittances & familial obligations simultaneously empower and take a toll on immigrants
    • “I left my family to be a good mother”
  • connections to Philippines demonstrate an insistence on being “homebound” rather than “homeless” (97)