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QCD in the Twenty-First Century. Emergent properties with QCD degrees of freedom! . Higgs (-like) Particle – - Origin of Mass , QCD dof - Standard Model  The Theory (2) QCD Emerging Properties – - Confinement, χ C symmetry - QCD Phase Structure

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qcd in the twenty first century
QCD in the Twenty-First Century

Emergent properties with QCD degrees of freedom!

Higgs (-like) Particle –

- Origin of Mass, QCD dof

- Standard Model  The Theory

(2) QCD Emerging Properties –

- Confinement, χC symmetry

- QCD Phase Structure

- Nucleon helicity structure

- …

- Non-linear QCD at small-x

- …

slide2

High-Energy Nuclear Collisionsand QCD Phase StructureNu Xu(1,2)(1) College of Physical Science & Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079, China(2) Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

slide3

Exploring the QCD Phase Structure

TERHIC,

SPS, FAIR

2

Tini, TC

LHC, RHIC

Phase boundary

RHIC,FAIR, NICA

3

1

1

2

3

Hadronic

Matter

Partonic Matter

qcd thermodynamics
QCD Thermodynamics

RHICLHC

SB Ideal Gas

At μB = 0: cross over transition, 150 < Tc < 200 MeV

The SB ideal gas limit: T/Tc ~ 107

Tini(LHC) ~ 2-3*Tini(RHIC)

Thermodynamic evolutions are similar for RHIC and LHC

Zoltan Fodor, Lattice 2007

jet s at sps rhic and lhc
Jets at SPS, RHIC and LHC

Nuclear modification factor:

Stronger suppression at higher collision energies

RAA ~ 0.5 for charged hadrons at high pT (~100 GeV/c) in central Pb+Pb central collisions

medium effects quarkonia key words thermometer deconfinement debye s creen regeneration coalescence
Medium Effects:Quarkoniakey words: thermometer, deconfinement, Debyescreen, regeneration (coalescence)
j suppression or enhancement
J/ψ Suppression or Enhancement

mid-rapidity forward-rapidity

Due to large charm production cross section at LHC and coalescence process, the J/ψ RAA increased in mid-rapidity at central collisions. More such increase is expected in √sNN= 5.5 TeVPb+Pb collisions.

Both suppression: “Debye Screening” and the recent observed increase: “Coalescence”, demonstrating the sQGP medium effect.

model comparisons
Model Comparisons

mid-rapidity forward-rapidity

Models predict yield RAA well.

To indentify the production mechanism and study the properties of the medium: shadowing, collectivity, coalescence, etc, study:

More see Pengfei’s talk.

upsilon productions
Upsilon Productions

Temperature measurement?

Systematic study transverse momentum dependence of quarkonia productions in high-energy nuclear collisions:

slide11

Collectivity vs. Collision Energy

Collectivity increase as collision energy

√sNN> 39 GeV, partonic dominant

√sNN≤ 11 GeV, hadronic dominant

STAR data: arXiv:1206.5528

ALICE data: Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252302 (2010)

collectivity collision energy
Collectivity ~ Collision Energy

ALICE: PRL105, 252302(10); arXiv:1208.1974

STAR: PRC66, 034904(02); PRC72, 014904(05); PHENIX: PRL98, 162301(07); PHOBOS: PRL98, 242302 (07)

CERES: NPA698, 253c(02); E877: NPA638, 3c(98); E895: PRL83, 1295(99).

STAR Preliminary

di electrons s nn dependence
Di-electrons: √sNNDependence

Di-lepton: penetrating-bulk probe

LMR: no significant energy dependence in enhancement

Future: focus in 1 < mll < 3 GeV/c2, to

- Measure correlated charm contributions

- Extract direct radiation information

slide14

Future: Partonic Collectivity, Direct Radiation

√sNN= 200 GeV Au + Au Collisions

Light hadron collectivity:

partonic + hadronic

(s, c) hadron collectivity:

partonic!

Di-leptons (m > 1 GeV) collectivity:

1) partonic

2)direct radiation

slide15

sQGP and QCD Phase Structure

Observations:

(1) Azimuthally HBT

1st order phase transition

(2) Directed flow v1

1st order phase transition

(3) Dynamical correlations

partonic vs. hadronic dof

(4) v2 - NCQ scaling

partonic vs. hadronic dof

(5) Fluctuations

Critical point, correl. length

- http://drupal.star.bnl.gov/STAR/starnotes

/public/sn0493

- arXiv:1007.2613

sQGPformed at μB ~ 0:

- Collectivity: NCQ scaling in v2, …

- Jet-quenching, Quarkonia,γ, …

RHIC BES-I Program:

- Partonic dominant:

√sNN >39 GeV (μB ≤ 100 MeV)

- Hadronic dominant:

√sNN ≤11.5 GeV (μB ≥ 300 MeV)

What is the structure of

the QCD phase diagram?

- phase boundary?

- QCD critical point?

slide16

Medium Effects:Critical Pointkey words:QGP phase, hadronic phase, 1st order phase boundary, critical end point, correlation length, critical slowing down...

higher moments
Higher Moments

1) High moments for conserved quantum numbers: Q, S, B, in high-energy nuclear collisions

2) Sensitive to critical point (ξ correlation length):

3) Direct comparison with Lattice results:

Extract susceptibilities and freeze-out temperature. An independent/important test on thermal equilibrium in heavy ion collisions.

- A. Bazavov et al. 1208.1220 (NLOTE)

- STAR Experiment:PRL105, 22303(2010)

- M. Stephanov: PRL102, 032301(2009)

- R.V. Gavai and S. Gupta, PLB696, 459(2011)

- S. Gupta, et al., Science, 332, 1525(2011)

- F. Karsch et al, PLB695, 136(2011)

- M.Cheng et al, PRD79, 074505(2009)

- Y. Hatta, et al, PRL91, 102003(2003)

M. Cheng et al, PRD79, 074505(2009)

R. Gavai and S. Gupta, QM2012

higher moment net charge
Higher Moment: Net-charge

STAR Preliminary

  • - PHENIX: E. O’Brien, QM2012
  • - STAR: D. McDonald, QM2012
  • HRG Model: K. Redlich et al, privatecommunications, 2011
slide19

Net-proton Higher Moments

STAR: X.F. Luo, QM2012

STAR net-proton results:

All data show deviations below Poisson beyond statistical and systematic errors in the 0-5% most central collisions for κσ2 and Sσ at all energies.

UrQMD model show monotonic behavior

Higher statistics needed for collisions at √sNN< 20 GeV

STAR Preliminary

slide20

Summary and Outlook

1) Heavy flavor:

(a) NMF for HF jets and hadrons extract transport properties and understand energy loss mechanism

(b) Collectivity of HF hadrons thermalization of the medium

2) Di-lepton: pT, v2, RAA, polarization  temperature and collectivity of the partonic medium

3) RHIC BES-II/NICA/FAIR at √sNN< 20 GeV  exploring QCD phase diagram, search for the possible critical point, quarkyonic matter

4) small-x (forward-y) physics  exploring the structure of cold nuclear matter, dynamical evolution from the CNM to sQGP

LHC/RHIC provides unique opportunities for exploring matter with QCD degrees of freedom!

slide21

研究量子色动力学(QCD)相结构

TE

RHIC, SPS

2

Large μB

NICA, FAIR, CSR

Tini, TC

LHC, RHIC

3

1

LHC+RHIC

sQGP properties

√sNN ~ few TeV

NICA/FAIR

QCD phase structure

√sNN ≤ 12 GeV

1

2

3

Partonic Matter

Hadronic

Matter

RHIC BES-II

QCD phase structure and critical point

√sNN ≤ 20 GeV

Future eRHIC

Cold nuclear matter properties

e+ ion collisions

Emergent properties of QCD matter