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Oman A secretive land. Contents. General Information Historical overview Oil Discovery 1970: Oman’s Renaissance 1980-1990: A decade of economic turmoil Oil: blessing or curse? Longer-term perspectives Conclusion. General Information. Oman. Population: 2,567,000 (July 2005 est.)

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contents
Contents
  • General Information
  • Historical overview
  • Oil Discovery
  • 1970: Oman’s Renaissance
  • 1980-1990: A decade of economic turmoil
  • Oil: blessing or curse? Longer-term perspectives
  • Conclusion
slide4
Oman
  • Population: 2,567,000 (July 2005 est.)
  • Religions: Ibadhi Muslim (75%), Sunni Muslim, Shi’a Muslim
  • Monarchy ( Sultan Qaboos)
  • Strategic location (Strait of Hormuz)
  • Member of the Gulf Cooperation Council but not of the OPEC
historical overview
Historical Overview
  • Ancient times: the incense and spice route
  • Towards independence (1650)
  • The heyday of the Omani empire
  • A history dominated by the struggle of conflicting interests (tribal, ethnic, political, commercial, geographic…)
  • The decline of the 20th Century
oil discovery
Oil Discovery
  • Oil and Politics:  oil industry concentrates wealth and power in the hands of the governments
  • Oman: a Rentier state?
  • Oil and Economy: in 2004, oil & gas revenues accounted for 78% of the government revenue

Oman owns its own National Petroleum Company

  • The reign of Sultan Said: a restrictive rule
oman s renaissance
Oman’s renaissance

July, 23rd 1970: Sultan Qaboos takes over power:

  • Political changes
    • 1971: Oman enters the UN
    • 1981: Creation of a State Consultative Council
    • 1996: “Basic Statute of the State”
  • Economical and social development
    • Infrastructure (roads, ports, hospitals…)
    • Education
    • Healthcare
1980 1990 a decade of economic turmoil
1980-1990: A decade of economic turmoil
  • A recurrent problem: a limited resource base
  • Fluctuating prices of the oil market
  • The hiccups of the modernisation program
slide9

Evolution of crude oil prices since 1961

(Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2005)

oil blessing or curse
Oil: Blessing or Curse?
  • 1980-1997: general improvement of the population’s well-being
  • Oman’s economy remains based on a monocultural exportation (Oil)
  • The oil industry creates little employement
  • 3 alternatives:
    • Economic diversification
    • Omanisation
    • Privatization
economic diversification
Economic diversification
  • Natural gas
    • In 2005  5% of the GDP
    • Limited resources
  • Minerals
    • Copper
    • Coal
    • Marble
economic diversification1
Economic diversification

3. Agriculture and fisheries

  • Date and frankincense producer
  • Cattle herds (goats, camels, cows)
  • Fishing Oman has 3165 km of coastlines
economic diversification2
Economic diversification
  • Tourism
  • Today, this sector represents less than 1% of the GDP
  • Massif investment

 1billion/year from the private sector

omanisation
Omanisation
  • In 1997, 65% of the labour forces were expatriates conflicts with the younger generations now confronted to unemployment
  • The government now aims to replace foreign workers by qualified omanis
privatization
Privatization
  • A key element in the economic policy
  • Privatization mainly in the industrial, commercial and tourism companies
  • In the public sector (water, electricity, postal services)
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Mitigated progress
    • Institutional weaknesses
    • Population torn between tradition and modernity
    • An important population growth rate (3,32% in 2005)
  • Oman needs to be more incorporated in regional policies
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Allen, C. H., Rigsbee, W. L. II., Oman under Qaboos, from Coup to Constitution, 1970-1996, Frank Cass Publishers, 2002.
  • Beasant, J., Oman: the true-life drama and intrigue of an Arab State, Mainstream Publishing, 2002.
  • Joyce, M., The sultanate of Oman: a twentieth century history, Praeger, Westport, 1995.
  • Mansur, A. S., Oman beyond the oil horizon: policies toward sustainable growth, ed. by Ashan Mansur & Volker Treichel, Wahsington D.C: International Monetary Fund, 1999.
  • Plekhanov, S., A reformer on the Throne: Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Al Said, Trident Press, 2004.
  • http://www.moneoman.gov.om
  • http://www.omanet.om
  • http://www.omantourism.gov.om