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Dynamic Equilibrium Chapter 15. Example liquid + heat vapour an endothermic physical change. Le Chatelier’s Principle. When a dynamic equilibrium is upset by a disturbance, the system responds in a direction that tends to counteract the disturbance and, if possible, restore equilibrium.

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dynamic equilibrium chapter 15

Dynamic EquilibriumChapter 15

Example

liquid + heat vapour

an endothermic physical change

le chatelier s principle
Le Chatelier’s Principle
  • When a dynamic equilibrium is upset by a disturbance, the system responds in a direction that tends to counteract the disturbance and, if possible, restore equilibrium

liquid + heat

vapour

Increase the temperature (add heat)

le chatelier s principle1
Le Chatelier’s Principle
  • When a dynamic equilibrium is upset by a disturbance, the system responds in a direction that tends to counteract the disturbance and, if possible, restore equilibrium

vapour

liquid + heat 

Liquid evapourates to absorb the added heat and the position of the equilibrium shifts to the right

chemical equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium

CH3COOH + H2O H3O++CH3COO-

For a given composition of a system, equilibrium is independent of which side you approach it from…..reactions are REVERSIBLE

N2O4(g)  2NO2(g)

Cinit 0.0350 mol 0

or 0 0.0700 mol

Cequil 0.0292 mol 0.0116 mol

slide5
Equilibrium Lawsimple relationship between molar concentrations (or pressures) of reactants and products at equilibrium

H2(g) + I2(g)  2HI(g) (at 440C)

Mass action expression:

Where Q is the reaction quotient

LAW: at equilibrium the reaction quotient is equal to the equilibrium constant, K.

In general for

dD + eE  gG + hH

equilibrium law for gaseous reactions
Equilibrium Law for Gaseous Reactions

For gaseous reactions use partial pressures, P, to give an equilibrium constant (Kp)

slide8

The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants

  • The equilibrium constant, K, is the ratio of products to reactants.
  • Therefore, the larger K the more

products are present at equilibrium.

  • Conversely, the smaller K the more

reactants are present at equilibrium.

  • If K >> 1, then products dominate

at equilibrium and equilibrium lies

to the right.

  • If K << 1, then reactants dominate

at equilibrium and the equilibrium

lies to the left.

predicting direction of equilibrium changes le chatelier redux
Predicting direction of equilibrium changes(Le Chatelier redux)

Adding or removing reactant or product

Cu(H2O) 42+(aq.) + 4Cl-(aq.) CuCl 42-(aq.) + 4H2O

Changing volume (or pressure)-gases only

as liquids and solids are incompressible

Decrease V=>increase P

System opposes this by reducing the number of molecules

slide10

Predicting direction of equilibrium changes(Le Chatelier redux)

Changing temperature (heat)

System opposes this by trying to absorb the added heat

ONLY factor that actually changes the value of K

Effect of catalyst

Speeds up approach to equilibrium, but does not

alter K or the system (kinetics)