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Transportation Policy Ben Beyer, Elyzabeth Earnley, Scott Grossman, Charlotte Morales, and Bryn Richards What renewable technologies or policies appear to be most promising in the reduction of air pollution related to transportation?
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Transportation Policy • Ben Beyer, Elyzabeth Earnley, Scott Grossman, Charlotte Morales, and Bryn Richards
What renewable technologies or policies appear to be most promising in the reduction of air pollution related to transportation? • What renewable technologies or policies appear to be most promising in the reduction of energy consumption related to transportation?
THE PROBLEM • As the number of vehicles and miles traveled on American roadways continues to grow, the nation looks toward advanced vehicles and fuels to meet the increasing demand for energy-efficient, environmentally friendly modes of transport.
PRESIDENTIAL ACTION • $1.2 billion for Hydrogen Fuel Initiative • The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative will include • $720 million to develop new technologies to produce, store, and distribute hydrogen for use in fuel cell vehicles. • Total of 1.7 billion spent on the advancement of Hydrogen Technology over the next 5 years
FreedomCAR and Fuel Initiative(Cooperative Automotive Research) • PURPOSE • Develop new vehicle and fuel technologies needed to make it practical and cost-effective for large numbers of Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020.
THE GOALS • The FreedomCAR and Fuel Initiative • Lowering the cost of hydrogen • Creating effective hydrogen storage • Creating affordable hydrogen fuel cells
THE FACTS • Fuel Cells Improve Air Quality and Dramatically Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: • The hydrogen fuel and FreedomCAR initiatives may reduce America’s greenhouse gas emissions from transportation alone by more than 500 million metric tons of carbon equivalent each year by 2040. • Hydrogen is the Key to a Clean Energy Future: • Highest energy content per unit of weight of any known fuel. • Hydrogen produces effectively zero emissions • Only waste is water. • Can be produced from abundant domestic resources including natural gas, coal, biomass, and even water. • Could make an emissions-free energy future possible.
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program • Began in 1993. • Five-year cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler. • Goal • Develop production feasible HEVs that achieved twice the fuel economy of similar gasoline vehicles and had comparable performance, safety, and costs.
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program:What the Future Holds • TIMELINE FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT • 2004 The Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra. • 2005 The Saturn Vue, which will have twin electric motors. It will carry a Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle rating. • 2006 The Chevrolet Equinox SUV. which will provide improved fuel economy in stop-and-go driving. • 2007 The Chevrolet Tahoe and the GMC Yukon SUVs. This same year GM will offer the hybrid system used on the Equinox on the Chevrolet Malibu sedan.
According to 1997 figures, the approximately 5.5 million Class 3-8 commercial trucks use approximately 22.9 billions gallons of fuel annually, making it one of the fastest growing energy use transportation sectors.
The Heavy Hybrid Goals • Increase the fuel efficiency of heavy trucks (Class 3-8) and buses by as much as 100%. • Improve emissions of heavy trucks and buses. • Reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil. • Maintain the Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 emissions standards.
COOL CAR PROJECT • Purpose • Increase fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions by reducing the auxiliary load requirements. • Manage cabin thermal comfort from a systems approach including direct heating and cooling of the passengers • Reducing vehicle peak and steady-state thermal loads • Reduce power requirements of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system
COOL CAR PROJECT:Facts • The power required to cool a vehicle's passenger compartment can significantly reduce the range of an electric vehicle and the fuel economy of a hybrid electric vehicle. • The power necessary to operate the air-conditioning compressor can be greater than the engine power required to move a mid-sized vehicle 56 km/h (35 mph). • The climate control load becomes a larger percentage of the engine power as engine sizes are reduced and could reduce the fuel economy of an 80-mpg vehicle by nearly 50%.
Variable Conductance Insulation • Through the Variable Conductance Insulation (VCI) Ethanol Vehicle Project, laboratory test results proved that the technology is capable of retaining heat in the catalytic converter. VCI technology allows the maintenance of high temperatures within catalytic converters for extended periods of time, thus reducing cold start emissions. Cold starts (start-up after the engine and catalytic converter have cooled down) contribute to 60-80% of automobile tailpipe emissions during a typical driving cycle.
EC- Diesel Technology Validation Program • Purpose: • Produce a Diesel fuel that is conducive to low exhaust emissions. • EC-Diesel • Produces less than 10 parts per million sulfur content • Octane number of 60. • Reduces engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen by 5 percent and particulate matter emissions by an average of 15 percent. • Enables the use of sulfur-sensitive emission control devices for even greater exhaust emission reductions.
What Incentives are Needed to Encourage the Use of alternate transportation technologies and fuels in the United states? $$$$$ MONEY!!! MONEY!!! MONEY!!! $$$$
Possible Incentives • Making cleaner fuel tax deductible • Government aid to help purveyors and merchants stock cleaner products • HOV lanes in high traffic areas • Building cheap, convenient alternate transportation
Problems • We are a society of convenience; not willing to change • Prefer privacy of our cars to public transportation • Some argue cost of car equals annual fares • Many cities are structured to be accessible only through a private car ex. San Antonio
What role should mass transit and urban planning play in dealing with transportation problems?
Mass transit/ Urban Planning Dilemmas & Possible Solutions • Improve Environmental Standards • New technology: CNG • Mass transport inefficient • Andover-Boston: 1 hr. • Amtrak • Accessibility • Improve schedules/routes • Cost incentives • Grassroots Carpool Operations • Bring back the neighborhood grocery store • The New Suburb? • Build bike routes and sidewalks • Encourage people to exercise Site:www.car-free.org
CNG Buses • 65 transit agencies in U.S. • Of these, 31 agencies claim 20% or more of bus fleet is CNG powered. • Atlanta, LA, Sacramento, NYC • Boston • 358 CNG buses to be in service by Feb.2004 • Currently, 15 CNG buses • Sites www.fuelingtech.com www.urbantransport-technology.com/
Pros Reduce emissions (Nitrogen Oxide (NO) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) reduced by 90% compared to diesel). Reliable fuel Natural gas cheaper than Petrol Fast-fill station Cons 90% of emissions is methane Pressure=heavy Not cost effective for passenger vehicles Maintenance expensive Buses cost 15-20% more than diesel buses Fear Sites: http://esf.uvm.edu/envcncl/meetings/2001/cngbuses/sld001.htm Louisiana Dept. Natural Resources Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Alternatives to Autos! • Bicycles! • ~450 cals/hour • Bikes Not Bombs • Roxbury, MA • Promotes peace through community-based education • Environment-friendly modes of transportation • Recycled bikes • Yellow Bikes Program • Austin, TX • Jan. 1997 • 24 Bikes released from Wheatsville Co-op • 38 community bikes currently • Sites: • www.bikesnotbombs.org • Austin Chronicle Articles (keyword: Yellow Bikes)
What role should alternate transportation technologies or fuels play in global sustainable development?
Alliance for Global Sustainability • We must understand mobility patterns and their underlying forces in order to formulate effective sustainable transportation policies • The AGS examines urban and national travel surveys • Reveal travel regularities and demands over space and time • Differences in travel patterns over settings (land-use, population density, transport infrastructure, economics, culture) • Look at these to allow for the formulation of more appropriate policies to induce a shift toward more sustainable travel patterns.
Travel Behavior • If travel behavior is similar is the same in an industrialized country and a developing one– then the latter will most likely follow the same pattern that the first did. • Policies can be made to get rid of problems that countries like the US already went through before the others go through it.
World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) • General Motors • Ford • Honda • Nissan • Shell • Toyota • Volkswagen
Sustainable Mobility • The ability to meet the needs of society to: • Move freely, • Gain access, • Communicate, • Trade and, • Establish relationships Without sacrificing other essential human or ecological values today or in the future
Sustainable Mobility Answers: • Can the number of automobiles and commercial vehicles keep increasing? • Can our roads accommodate both the increased volume of passenger vehicles and the increased numbers of trucks that seem to be required to transport ever-growing volumes of freight? • Can the world bear the economic and environmental costs of locating, extracting, transporting, and processing the petroleum required by a growing number of vehicles? • Can the planet's oceans and atmosphere continue to absorb the increased pollution generated as a by-product of the transportation of vastly larger numbers of people and volumes of goods?
What Role Does the U.S. Play in Transferring Transportation Technology to Developing Countries?
Current U.S. Plans to promote the development of Alternative Transportation technologies to developing countries • DOTT’s Clean Cities International • Clean Cities International • U.S. delegation to the International conference on energy efficiency in Road Transportation In Rio.
Steps the U.S. can take in transferring Alternate Transportation technologies to Developing Countries • Take on a leading role in the education process of developing countries • Improve the infrastructure of developing countries that is necessary to their development of alternate transportation technologies. • Develop an effective, binding international authority that forces countries worldwide to cooperate in their efforts to build this technology • Set an appropriate example in the area of transportation technology
Boston, Massachusetts • Big Dig • “Largest/most complex highway project in U.S.’s history” • Central Artery tunnel • ~190,000 vehicles/day • 6-8 hours congestion/day • Zakim Bridge • Sites: • www.bigdig.com
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority • Commuter Rail, Subway, Buses, Boats • ~1.2 million riders/day • New environmental initiatives: • Low emission buses (CNG) • Low sulfur fuel • Improve current pollution controls • Environmental Management Policy • Earth Day, 2002 • Pledged to promote sustainable use of natural resources, waste reduction, recycling opportunities • Site: www.mbta.com
Dallas, TexasDART • Multiple Mass Transit services • Advantages/Disadvantages • Price • Travel to and from downtown • Reputation of being very Unreliable • Very complicated route system • Route System • People of Dallas have the embedded mentality of driving everywhere
Bogotá, Colombia • Well developed public transportation system • Lately updated to be less chaotic • Different types of vehicles to choose from
New Developments in Bogotá • Mayor Antanas Mockus has instituted new technology and cleaned up the streets • Plan includes: • Building the TransMilenio system • Creating bus stops for other types of buses • Limiting private car usage Pico y Placa
Advantages • Less congestion and traffic • TransMilenio is cleaner than privately owned buses and fastest way to travel • Safer for riders, especially at night
Disadvantages • Expensive to build • High fare of TransMilenio • Bus drivers unemployed • Locations not as convenient for riders
London, EnglandTransport for London • In July 1998, the Government published the transport White Paper A New Deal for Transport - Better for Everyone, which promotes the bus as a preferred solution to urban traffic congestion within an integrated transport policy • Well known Bus System • Walking Maps and Bike Routes improved • The Tube Planner allows you to pre-plan your journey across London via the Underground and Docklands Light Railway.