THREE PROCESSES OF MEMORY Encoding Storage Retrieval
Encoding • The translating of information into a form that can be stored in your brain. • Example: • Sound of my voice is converted into a format your brain can store and later retrieve psychologically. • Like typing words and then saving your work on a computer.
Types of Encoding:Semantic Encoding • Encoding the meaning of something • Encoding information that is meaningful makes recall easier • This is the best type of encoding
Semantic Encoding Example • Is it easier to remember this list of letters? OTTFFSSENT • What if we told you that each letter is the first letter of the series of numbers from One through Ten? • One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Ten
Self-Reference Effect • Making information meaningful to a person by making it relevant to one’s life • Ask yourself: “How does this relate to me?”
Acoustic Encoding • Encoding information based on the sounds of the information • Example: Repeat what you want to remember over and over.
Visual Encoding • Encoding information based on images • Memorizing information by picturing it in your mind. • Least effective form of encoding.
Mnemonic Device • A memory trick or technique for remembering specific facts • “Every good boy does fine” to remember the notes on the lines of the scale • “People say you could have odd lots of good years” as a way to remember how to spell “psychology”
Method of Loci • A mnemonic device in which the person associates items to be remembered with imaginary places • Place items you want to remember in your house.
Peg-Word System • A mnemonic device in which the person associates items to remember with a list of peg words already memorized • Goal is to visualize the items to remember with the items on the pegs
Categorical Clustering • Grouping items you want to remember by categories • Example: Grocery list organized by aisles or food category.
Acronyms • Set of letters from a word or phrase in which each letter stands of a certain other word or concept. • Example: HOMES = Names of the Great Lakes
Acrostics • Initial letters that taken in order form a word or phrase that trigger what you want to remember. • Example: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (Math) • Example: Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge (Music)
Interactive Images • Link a set of isolated words by creating visual representations for the words and then picturing interactions among the items. • Example: If you had to remember a list of random things like an aardvark, pencil, table and book picture the aardvark sitting on a table holding pencil in its claws and writing in a book.
Keyword System • Learning isolated words by linking sounds and meanings together. • Example: Elvis shook his pelvis • Stalactite holds tight to the ceiling • Fibula lies beneath the Tibula • Tibula is on top of the fibula
Do Mnemonics Work? • Watch this 8 minute video on how the world’s best memory competitors use mnemonics.
Once things are encoded they move to STORAGE • 2ND Process of Memory where encoded information is maintained over time. • Like a computer’s hard drive but it never gets full.
How can you get information into storage for later use? • Maintenance Rehearsal – Repeating information over and over • More time spent rehearsing, the longer the info will be remembered. • Information learned in this way doesn’t last over the long term. • Elaborative Rehearsal – Relating information to something you already know. • Information learned in this way will last longer in your memory
Storage is like a file cabinet • As you learn more info your brain categorizes it into many different groups and classes based on common features. • This can lead to filing errors when we file information incorrectly.
Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper
Retrieval • The process of getting information out of memory storage and into conscious thought. • Two forms of retrieval • Recall • Recognition
Recall • A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier • Example: Essay, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer test questions test recall
Recognition • A measure of memory in which a person must identify items learned earlier • Example: Multiple choice and matching questions test recognition; the correct answer is in front of you – you just need to recognize it.
Turn your paper over. Now pick out the seven dwarves. Grouchy Gabby Fearful Sleepy Smiley Jumpy Hopeful Shy Droopy Dopey Sniffy Wishful Puffy Dumpy Sneezy Pop Grumpy Bashful Cheerful Teach Snorty Nifty Happy Doc Wheezy Stubby Poopy
Seven Dwarves Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
Context Effect • The enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are in an environment similar to the one in which you encoded the information • Example: Take a walk in your elementary school and memories from that time will come flooding back.
State Dependent Memory • The enhanced ability to retrieve information when the person is in the same physical and emotional state they were in when they encoded the information • Example: When you’re angry you remember other times you were angry.
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon • When you are sure you know something but just cannot verbalize it. • This is frustrating!
Let’s Review The Three Processes of Memory
Encoding • The processing of information into the memory system. Typing info into a computer Getting a girls name at a party
Storage • The retention of encoded material over time. Trying to remember her name when you leave the party. Pressing Ctrl S and saving the info.
Retrieval • The process of getting the information out of memory storage. Seeing her the next day and calling her the wrong name (retrieval failure). Finding your document and opening it up.