ECONOMIC CONDITIONS DURING THE PALLAVAS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ECONOMIC CONDITIONS DURING THE PALLAVAS

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  1. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS DURING THE PALLAVAS

  2. ECONOIC LIFE Agriculture . The economy had remained self sufficient of the Pallava Kingdom was chiefly based on Villages and agriculture Paddy and Cotton were extensively cultivated . Rice was exported to China and East Indies . The creation of the Brahmadeya villages had started during the Pallava period . The Brahmins began to settle in these villages and they were exempted from paying taxes. The Lands donated to the temples were called as Devadanas . The number of villages had increased during the Pallava rule .

  3. There were two types of lands __ Cultivable Lands and Arid Lands Arid lands were reclaimed and cultivated . The Pallava kings had erected sevesral irrigation Tanks The pallava ruler Mahendravarman I erected the Mamandur Tank called Chitra Mega Tadakam . Handicrafts . The Crafts of the Pallava period include Weaving , Stone Cutting , Pottery , Carpentry and Ivory Works , The Cotton Clothes were exported to China , Babylonia and Egypt . Kanchipuram had remained an important centre for Silk Weaving .

  4. Internal Trade The increase in production and the expanding economy under the Pallavas led to the growth of Trade . There was a remarkable growth in the internal trade . The regular markets had gradually become urban centres . There were excellent highways to transport goods from one place to another . The Capital city , Kanchipuram had remained an important trading centre . The merchants of the Pallava period had to obtain license to keep shops and they were also asked to pay taxes . The Pallavas had issued Gold and Silver Coins , which had resulted in the expansion of commerce . The merchants had formed their own organizations called Manigramam .

  5. Foreign Trade . Spices , Cotton Textiles , Precious Stones and Medicinal Plants were exported to the countries like Java , Sumatra , Kadaram , Combodia , Sri Lanka , China and Burma . The foreign merchants were known as Nanadesi Mamallapuram and Mylapore were the important seaports of the Pallavas . Weights and Measures . Lands were measured with the units called Uzhavu, Nivarthanam or Pattigaand Hala refers to the unit of land . Plough was used for measuring the land . Paddy and Rice were measured by Chudunazhhi . The other units such as Videl , Vidugu and Uzhkku were also used for measurement . Pidi was the smallest unit .

  6. The units such as Aazhakku , Uzhakku , Uri and Nazhi were used to measure items like Milk , Ghee , and Oil . Gold was measured by the units called Kazhanju and Manjadi . _____

  7. Religion under the Pallavas. During the Pallava period , both Saivism and Vaishnavism had been revived , The Pallava rulers patronized both these religions . The spread of Bhakthi Movement was encouraged by the Pallava rulers . Bhakthi Movement . The Bhakthi Movement , which had spread in South India during Sixth and Seventh centuries AD , made a tremendous impact in the Social and Cultural life of the people . The term Bhakthi means Devotion to God . True Bhakthi was considered as more valuable than mere rites and rituals . During the period of PallavasAlzhwars and Nayanmars preached the cult of Bhakthi among the people .

  8. Saivism . The followers of Lord Siva were known as Saivaites , the saiva Saints , Nayanmars had preached Saivism . There were Sixty Three Nayanmars , the most important among them were Tirunavukkarasar , Thirugnanasambandar Sundarar and Manickavasagar There was also woman saints like KaraikkalAmmaiyar . They composed devotional songs and spread Bhakthi among the minds of the people . The hymns of Nayanmars have been compiled into PanniruThirumurais

  9. The hymns composed by first three were called Thevaram . Manickavasagar composed Thiruvasagam . Vaishnavism . The devotees of Lord Vishnu were called Vaishnavaits . Azhwars preached Vaishnavism during the Pallava period . There were twelve Azhwars PoigaiAzhwar , PeyAzhwar , BhoothathAzhwar , ThirumalisaiAzhwar , Thirumagai Azhwar . Nammalwar , Periyazhwar , Thirupanazhwar , MadhurakaviAzhwar , KulasekharaAzhwar , and Andal

  10. The only woman among the twelve Azhwars was Andal , composed Thiruppavai and NachiyarThirumozhi . The Hymns of Alwars have been compiled into NalayiraDivyaPrabandam . Both Saivism and Vaishnavism had become popular among the people due to the spread of the Bhakti Movement . Alwars and Nayanmars had composed their songs in Tamil and contributed to the growth of Tamil Literature .

  11. Art and Architecture under the Pallavas Introduction The Pallavas were the pioneers of South Indian Art and Architecture . They had introduced the Stone Architecture in the Tamil Country . Their Architecture had evolved stage by stage from the period of Mahendravarman -I Their Architecture was classified as Rock – Cut Temples Monolithic Rathas and Sculptural Mandapas and Structural Temples

  12. Rock – Cut Temples : The Pallava Rock cut Temples as Mahendravarman Style . He carved temples out of the rocks and thus they were known as rock cut temples . It was an really an innovation in the sphere of Art because he did not use any other building materials . Therefore , he was hailed as VichitraChitta . In these Rock cut Temples , we find the Sanctum and Sanctorium and on the Walls of it beautiful Sculptures . The Pillars are carved in such a way thst they stand on the heads of lions . The Rock cut Temples of Mahendravarman -I are found at various places of Tamil Nadu The most among them are Pallavaram , Mamandur , MahendravadiVallam and Thalavanur .

  13. Monolithic Rathas : The Monolithic rathas and Sculptural Mandapascostitute the Mamalla Style of Architecture . The Pallava king , Narasimhavarman -I was known as Mamalla . He had converted the port of Mamallapuram as a beautiful city of Art and Architecture . The Monolithic Rathas at Mamallapuram are now called as PanchaPandavaRathas . Each Ratha or Chariot was carved out of single rock and hence the name Monolithic . The Mandapas or Halls at Mamallapuram had also belonged to the Mamallan period . Each Mandapa was carved out of single rock . On the side walls of these Mandapas , beautiful Sculptures depicting Puranic stories had been carved .

  14. The most important among the Mamalla Style of Architecture is the Open Art Gallery . And Several Miniature Sculptures have been carved beautifully on the wall of a big rock . The fall of the River Ganges from the head of God Siva and the Arjuna’s Penance are notable among them . The image of Deer , Monkey , Cat , Mouse , and other animals are beautifully carved on this huge rock . Structural Temples . From the reign of Rajasimha , the construction of Structural temples were started . These temple structures were built with the use of Granite Slabs , known as Structural temples .

  15. The Structural Templee were classified into Rajasimha Style and Nandivarman Style The earliest among the Pallava structural temples were the Kailasanatha Temple at Kanchipuram and the Shore Temple at Mamallapuram , were built by using Sandstones and also filled with numerous sculptures .. This temple is considered as the Crown of Pallava Architecture . The Sculptures depicting the Scenes of the Drama of MathavilasaPrahasanam have been engraved in this temple . Nandivarman -II had built the VaikundaPerumal Temple at Kanchipuram . The Temples built by the later Pallava rulers are found at places like Kanchipuram , Tiruthani and Gudimallam .