the biosphere ch 3 p 62 83 l.
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THE BIOSPHERE Ch. 3 p.62-83. What is Ecology ?. Study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment . Ernst Haeckel – coined term Ecology in 1866 Greek word “ oikos ” means house Natures “houses”come in many sizes. Levels of Organization.

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what is ecology
What is Ecology?
  • Study of interactions betweenorganisms andbetween organisms and their environment.
  • Ernst Haeckel – coined term Ecology in 1866
    • Greek word “oikos” means house
      • Natures “houses”come in many sizes
levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • Ecologist study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization:
    • Species
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biome
    • Biosphere
organism
Organism

Species

  • Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population
Population

Population

  • group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area.
community
Community

Community

  • an assemblage of different populations that live together
ecosystem
Ecosystem

Ecosystem

  • Collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment
ecosystem8

Temperate grassland

Tropical rain forest

Temperate forest

Tundra

Northwestern

coniferous forest

Mountains and

ice caps

Tropical dry forest

Desert

Temperate woodland

and shrubland

Tropical savanna

Boreal forest

(Taiga)

Ecosystem

Biome

  • Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant commuties
ecosystem9
Ecosystem

Biosphere

  • The part of the earth where life exists including land, water, air, and atmosphere
three ecological methods of study
Three Ecological Methods of Study
  • Observing
    • What species live here?
    • How many individuals of species are there?
  • Experimenting
    • Used to test a hypothesis
    • Ex - making artificial environments in the lab
  • Modeling
    • Making models to gain insight into complex phenomena
    • Ex. - Global warming
autotrophs vs heterotrophs
Autotrophs – make their own foodso they are called PRODUCERS

Heterotrophs – get their food from another source so they are called CONSUMERS

Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
two main forms of energy for autotrophs
Two Main forms of Energy for Autotrophs
  • Sunlight
    • The main source of energy for life on earth
    • Photosynthesis
  • Chemical
    • Some organisms such as bacteria, rely on the energy stored in inorganic compounds
    • Chemosynthesis
types of consumers
Types of Consumers

Omnivores

Eat plants and meat

Herbivores- only eat plants

Carnivores - only eat meat

Detritivores and Decomposers

Feeds on plant and animal remains

how does energy flow through an ecosystem
How does Energy flow through an Ecosystem?
  • Energy flows through an ecosystem in ONE direction,
    • sun or chemicals
    • Autotrophs
    • heterotrophs
feeding relationships
Food Chain – steps of organisms transferring energy by eating & being eaten

Food Web – network of all the food chains in an ecosystem

Feeding Relationships
ecological pyramids
Ecological Pyramids
  • Trophic Level – each step in a food chain or food web

Biomass Pyramid

Energy Pyramid

Pyramid of Numbers

pyramid of energy amount of energy available at each trophic level
Most of the energy is used by the organisms for life processes

Some of the energy is lost as heat

Pyramid of Energy - amount of energy available at each trophic level
  • Only 10% of the energy from each trophic level is passed on to the next level
how does matter move through an ecosystem
Unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within & between ecosystems

Nutrients are passed between

organisms & the environment through biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles:

Bio –life

Geo – Earth

Chemo – chemical

WATER CYCLE

NUTRIENT CYCLES:

CARBON CYCLE

NITROGEN CYCLE

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE

How doesMatter move through an ecosystem?
why are nutrients important
95% of your body is made of…

OXYGEN

CARBON

HYDROGEN

NITROGEN

Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions.

Why are nutrients important ?
availibility of nutrients
Availibility of nutrients
  • If a nutrient is in short supply, it will limit an organisms growth. It is called a limiting nutrient
  • When a limiting nutrient is dumped into a lake or pond, an algal bloom occurs and can disrupt the ecosystem
carbon cycle see fig 3 13
CARBON CYCLE (see fig.3-13)
  • 4 PROCESSES MOVE CARBON THROUGH ITS CYCLE:
  • Biological
  • Geochemical
  • Mixed biochemical
  • Human Activity

CO2

CO2

nitrogen cycle see fig 3 14
NITROGEN CYCLE (see fig.3-14)

N2

in Atmosphere

  • Nitrogen-containing nutrients in the biosphere include:
  • Ammonia (NH3)
  • Nitrate (NO3-)
  • Nitrite (NO2-)
  • ORGANISMS NEED NITROGEN TO MAKE AMINO ACIDS FOR BUILDING PROTEINS!!!

N03- &

N02-

NH3

phosphorus cycle see fig 3 15
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE (see fig.3-15)

PHOSPHORUS FORMS PART OF IMPORTANT LIFE-SUSTAINING MOLECULES (ex. DNA & RNA)