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The Basel Convention An Overview. Workshop on UNEP Multilateral Environmental Agreements 6-8 October 2002, Teslic Bosnia & Herzegovina. The Basel Convention. Introduction, “mission” and objectives Waste controlled under the Convention The Control System

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the basel convention an overview

The Basel ConventionAn Overview

Workshop on UNEP Multilateral Environmental Agreements

6-8 October 2002, Teslic

Bosnia & Herzegovina

slide2

The Basel Convention

  • Introduction, “mission” and objectives
  • Waste controlled under the Convention
  • The Control System
  • Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes
  • Some Decisions at COP 5 – for COP6
  • The Basel Convention and the Stockholm Convention
  • Other programmatic activities
  • Elements for the implementation of the Basel Convention
  • Final Key Points
slide3

1 - Introduction, the problem

Unregulated transboundary movements of hazardous wastes between countries, in particular, from “developed countries” to “developing countries or countries with economies in transition”

1 the process of adoption of the basel convention
1 – The process of adoption of the Basel Convention
  • 1985 Preliminary work of UNEP
  • 1987 Adoption of the “Cairo Guidelines”
  • 1989 Adoption of the Basel Convention
  • 1992 Entry into force, 5th May 1992
  • 2002 Total number of Parties 150 (Status, September 2002)
1 mission of the convention
1 – “Mission” of the Convention

Preamble

Protection, under strict control, of human health and environment against adverse effects which may result from the generation and management of hazardous wastes and other wastes

1 key objectives of the basel convention
1 - Key Objectives of The Basel Convention
  • Reduce transboundary movements of hazardous wastes to a minimum consistent with their environmentally sound management
  • Dispose of hazardous wastes as close as possible to their sources of generation
  • Minimize generation of hazardous wastes

in terms of quantity and hazardousness.

pillars of the basel convention
Pillars of the Basel Convention
  • Regulation of the Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
  • Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes
slide8

2 - Wastes controlled under the Convention

  • Definition of hazardous wastes
    • Article 1.1.a) of the Convention (Annex I and Annex III)
    • Article 1.1.b) of the Convention (nationally defined hazardous wastes)
    • Articles 1.2 of the Convention (other wastes)
    • Annex VIII and Annex IX of the Convention
2 wastes controlled under the convention
2 - Wastes controlled under the Convention
  • Clinical wastes
  • Mining wastes
  • Industrial wastes
  • Agricultural wastes
  • End of life equipments and commodities (asbestos, PCB c. equip., stockpiles, LAB, batteries, e-wastes, ships, etc)
2 wastes not controlled under the convention
2 - Wastes NOT controlled under the Convention
  • radioactive wastes
  • ODS as wastes
  • contaminated land (?)
  • wastes having nickel constituents
  • Annex IX, ..
slide11

3 – The Control System for Transboundary Movements

  • 1989 The Control System
  • 1995 Ban Amendment adopted by Decision of the COP
  • 1999 Protocol on Liability and Compensation
slide12

3 – The Control System of Transboundary Movements

The Control System of The Convention (1989)

. Responsibility to notify

. Prior written consent procedure

. Re-import obligations

. Prohibitions and restrictions

. Definition and control of illegal traffic

. Documentation: notification, Doc. Movement

. Contract between the exporter and the disposer

. Insurance/financial garanties

. International transport rules and regulations

. Environmentally sound management of wastes

slide13

3 – The Control System of Transboundary Movements

The Control System of the Convention (1989)

Prohibitions and restrictions

. Movements between Parties only (…)

. National prohibitions

. Obligations of environmentally sound management (Art. 4.9)

. Export for disposal to the area of 60o South latitude

slide14

3 – The Control System of Transboundary Movements

The Ban Amendment - Article 4A (adopted in 1995)

  • Prohibit export of hazardous wastes destined for final disposal from states members to the Annex VII to States not listed in Annex VII.
  • Prohibit export of hazardous wastes destined for recovery and recycling from states members to the Annex VII to States not listed in Annex VII (31.12.97)

Annex VII: Parties and other States which are members of OECD, EC, and Liechtenstein

slide15

Take all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes or other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes (Art. 2)

4– Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes

4 environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes
4– Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes
  • (Art. 4), Technical Guidelines
  • Generation is reduced to a minimum
  • Availability of adequate disposal facilities
  • Persons involved are adequately trained
  • Minimize consequences in case pollution occurs
  • Treatment as close as possible to place of generation
  • Precautionary principle
  • Integrated life cycle management principle
  • Polluter pays principle, etc
  • Technical Guidelines for specific waste streams;
5 some decisions at cop v cop6
5 – Some decisions at COP V – COP6
  • V/1 Basel Declaration on ESM – Enabling Decision
  • V/5 Regional centres for training and technology transfer
  • V/19 Mechanism for promoting implementation of and compliance with
  • V/24 Classification and characterization of wastes
  • V/29 Basel Protocol on liability and compensation
  • V/32 Enlargement of the scope of the technical cooperation trust fund
  • V/33 Strategic Plan
6 relationship between the basel and the stockholm conventions
6. Relationship between the Basel and the Stockholm Conventions
  • Stockholm Convention
  • Art. 5. Measures to to reduce or eliminate releases from unintentional sources
    • (d) (e): Promote, in accordance with its action plan, the use of best available techniques and best available practices (apply to HCB);
  • Art.6. Measures to reduce or eliminate releases from stockpiles/wastes
    • 1.(a) Develop appropriate strategies for identifying (i) stockpiles (…); (ii) wastes (…);
    • 1.(d) take appropriate measures so that such wastes, including products and articles upon becoming wastes, are:
      • (i) handled, collected, transported and stored in an e.s.m;
      • (ii) disposed of so that they do not exhibit characteristics of POPs (…) taking into account international rules, standards and guidelines (…) governing the management of hazardous wastes;
      • not transported across international boundaries without taking into account relevant international rules, standards and guidelines;
slide20

6. Relationship between the Basel and the Stockholm Conventions

  • Stockholm Convention
  • Art.6.2. The COP shall cooperate closely with the Basel Converntion to, inter alia:
      • establish levels of destruction and irreversible transformation …
      • Determine what they consider to be methods that constitute e.s.disposal;
      • Work to establish, as appropriate, the concentration levels of the chemicals listed in Annexs A, B, C in order to define the low persistent organic pollutant content referred to in paragraph 1 (d)(ii);
slide21

6A. Relationship between the Basel and the Stockholm Conventions - Pesticides

Rotterdam

Basel

Rott.

Non- POPs

pesticides

- - - - - -

POPs

pesticides

- - - - -

Stockholm

LCM

Re-Use

Generation (S.)

Trade in Products (S.- R.)

ESM of Wastes

(incl. Tr. Mvts, D)

Use

slide22

6A. Relationship between the Basel and the Stockholm Conventions - PCBs

PCTs

PBBs

- - - - - -

PCBs

Basel

- - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

Rotterdam

Basel

Stockholm

Stockholm

LCM

Generation

Trade in Products

Use

(Maintenance)

ESM of Wastes

(incl. Tr. Mvts, D)

6b the basel convention and pops wastes
6B - The Basel Convention and POPs wastes
  • Pesticides
    • First Continental Conference for Africa, Rabat 2001
    • Programme of Action - Rabat Declaration //
    • WB-GEF funded proposal (15-250 mUS$)
    • PCBs
    • Methodology for management plans, databases for inventories, regulations, training of governmental officers, inspectors, customs and owners on the various aspects of PCB management, set up of storage platforms, etc;
    • National & Regional Management Plans; Central America, SADC countries (Africa), (West Africa) (UNEP-Chemicals-SBC-regional centres of the Basel Convention);
    • Dioxins/Furans Joint UNEP-Chemicals-SBC pilot project proposals
7 other programmatic activities
7 – Other Programmatic activities

Programme - Monitoring & control of the transboundary movements of h.w and prevention of illegal traffic

  • Asia (Eastern & Central Europe, LAC, Africa)
  • Partners WCO, Interpol, Cites, Ozone, OPCW
  • Concept of ‘Environmental (green) Customs’
  • Regional Projects for the monitoring/control of T.M of H.W
  • - desk study, company and shipment checks ;
  • - preparation of decision-supportive tools, training ;
  • Regional Workshop for C.A, Customs & Ports Authorities (HK, China)
  • National Workshops for C.A, Customs & Ports Authorities ;
7 other programmatic activities25
7 – Other Programmatic activities
  • Programme - ESM of biomedical wastes
  • Africa & LAC, partners WHO-International Steering Group
  • Finalization of the TG of the Basel Convention (TWG) ;
  • Programme elements:
    • Development of methodology for the preparation of local/national health care waste management plans ;
    • Preparation of database on treatment technologies ;
    • Development of Rapid Assessment Tool/Estimation Model ;
    • Country projects on the preparation of health care waste management plans in each region and training (LAC, Africa);
    • Joint fund raising strategy ;
7 other programmatic activities26
7 – Other Programmatic activities

Programme - ESM of spent lead acid batteries

  • Caribbean & Central America, South East Asia
  • Partners UNCTAD, ILMC, industry, NCPCs
  • Country programmes on the assessment of the current collection and recycling systems for spent lead/acid batteries in Parties to the Basel Convention;
  • Strategic elements for the set up of a regional mechanism for the E.S.M of lead-acid batteries (legal, technical, economical & financial);
  • Technical standards for the ESM of LAB in the regions;
  • Regional Battery Recycling Seminar;
  • Preparation of Action Plans (including technology transfer, economic instruments, etc)
7 other programmatic activities27
7 – Other Programmatic activities
  • On going Programmes
  • Monitoring & control of the transboundary movements of h.w and prevention of illegal traffic;
  • ESM of PCB containing equipments;
  • ESM of biomedical wastes;
  • ESM of lead acid batteries;
  • Planned
  • Used oils;
  • Hazardous wastes in small quantities;
  • Electronic wastes/precious metals;
  • Dismantling of ships
8 implementation of the basel convention
8 – Implementation of the Basel Convention
  • Focal points and Competent Authorities (Art. 5)
  • International co-operation (Art.10)
  • Regional centres for training and technology transfers (Art. 14)
  • Transmission of information (Art.13)
  • Mechanisms for fulfilment of obligations (Monitoring & Compliance)
  • Emergency fund (Fifth COP)
8 elements of a strategy for the implementation of the basel convention
8 –Elements of a strategy for the implementation of the Basel Convention

‘First level’ activities

  • Strengthening/up-grading of the legal framework ;
  • Set up of a control system for the monitoring & control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes ;
  • Development of hazardous waste management strategy (Action Plan) ;
  • National reporting ;
8 other elements to consider
8 – Other elements to consider

. Annex VII & Ban Amendment ;

. Annex IX ;

. Article 1.1b ;

. Mirror entries in Annex VIII/IX ;

. New EU Waste Shipment Regulation (consultations)

9 final key points
9 – Final Key Points
  • the only global comprehensive MEA on hazardous wastes management;
  • brings a legal base to be used for further development of national policy;
  • far reaching and complex;
  • NO financial mechanism;
for more information

For more information

Visit the Basel Convention’s website:

http://www.basel.int/