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The Age of Reform

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  1. The Age of Reform Jacksonian Era Reform Movements

  2. Education Communitarianism THEME: A response to changes in economics and politics Prisons/Asylums Religion Temperance Women’s Rights

  3. Education • An educated population is essential to a democracy. • Public school movement • Horace Mann  standards, consistency • William McGuffey --> McGuffey “Readers”; instill civic virtues • Colleges • New colleges: UNC, UVA • Women: Mt. Holyoke; Coed: Oberlin • Informal education: libraries, Lyceum mov’t

  4. Prison/Asylum Reform • Reflects a “concern for the common man” • Rehab v. punishment as a goal • “Gaols” become “penitentiaries” • Dorothea Dix

  5. Temperance • Alcohol abuse effects families; workplace safety • American Temperance Society • Neal S. Dow / Maine Law (1851)

  6. Women’s Rights • Participatory democracy for whom? Universal male suffrage? • “Cult of Domesticity” & Catherine Beecher • Early Feminists: Mott, Stanton, Anthony, the Grimke Sisters • Seneca Falls Convention • Declaration of Rights and Sentiments

  7. Communitarianism • Reactions against “dog-eat-dog” society and economic competition. • New Harmony – socialism • Brook Farm – transcendentalism / utopianism • Oneida – free love, complex marriage, eugenics, communism, and silverware! • Shakers – simple living, celibacy

  8. The Oneida Community practiced eugenics or “scientific breeding” in which a special committee selected members of the community to breed children. In this image, children parade in front of their proud “parents.”

  9. Religion • Second Great Awakening • Emphasis on religion for the “common man” • New religions (Methodism, Baptists, etc.) encouraged missionary activity / reform • New faiths emerge, especially in the west • Millerites • Mormons

  10. Cartoon satirizing the death of Brigham Young in 1877