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Forging new generations of engineers. Tensile Testing. The following MATERIAL PROPERTIES can be evaluated / determined by TENSILE TESTING: STRENGTH DUCTILITY ELASTICITY STIFFNESS. Material Properties. STRENGTH - the greatest stress that the material can withstand prior to failure.

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tensile testing
Tensile Testing
  • The following MATERIAL PROPERTIES can be evaluated / determined by TENSILE TESTING:
  • STRENGTH
  • DUCTILITY
  • ELASTICITY
  • STIFFNESS
material properties
Material Properties

STRENGTH - the greatest stress that the material can withstand prior to failure.

DUCTILITY - a material property that allows it to undergo considerable plastic deformation under a load before failure.

ELASTICITY - a material property that allows it to retain its original dimensions after removal of a deforming load.

STIFFNESS - a material property that allows a material to withstand high stress without great strain.

the tensile tester
The Tensile Tester

A machine which applies a tensile force (a force applied in opposite directions) to the specimen, and then measures that force and also the elongation:

This machine usually uses a hydraulic cylinder to create the force. The applied force is determined by system pressure, which can be accurately measured.

the tensile tester5
The Tensile Tester

AppliedForce is hydraulic pressure times the area of the cylinder’s piston.

F = PRESSURE x AREA

= 0.6N/mm2 x 1962.25mm2

=1177.35 N

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Tensile Tester

Data Acquisition Unit

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Marking the sample:

A precision punch with two points exactly 2.000” apart is used to mark the sample in the tested region.

This establishes the original length.

slide13

This device, called an EXTENSOMETER, measures the distance between the two prongs very precisely while the test is in progress.

slide14

Before

After

terms
Terms

Necking: The localized decrease in diameter in a specimen near the rupture point.

Elastic Deformation Region: The area of a stress - strain curve where the specimen will deform under load, yet return to its original shape when the load is removed.

Plastic Deformation: Deformation that occurs once the object has been stressed past its elastic limit. The deformation is no longer reversible.

necking
Necking

“Necking” occurs as the sample leaves the elastic deformation region and begins to deform plastically.

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Upon completion of the test, the sample is reassembled and final measurements for total elongation and minimum diameter are made using a vernier caliper.

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For maximum precision, the points of the vernier caliper must be placed exactly at the center of the marks made by the punch prior to the test.

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Compare the material properties of these three metal samples.

All three failed under tension

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PLASTIC DEFORMATION REGION

ELASTIC DEFORMATION REGION

slide28

The point of departure from the elastic deformation region is known as the “yield point.”

In the elastic region, the slope of this line is the material’s Modulus of Elasticity.