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SPSS AMOS INVARIANCE ANALYSIS ACROSS CULTURES CASE STUDY: INTERNET BANKING ACCEPTANCE. Bander AlSajjan and CHARLES DENNIS. AGENDA. Importance of Internet Banking Theory of Reasoned Action Technology acceptance models Theory of Planned Behaviour Cross-cultural comparison Conclusions.

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spss amos invariance analysis across cultures case study internet banking acceptance

SPSS AMOS INVARIANCE ANALYSIS ACROSS CULTURESCASE STUDY: INTERNET BANKING ACCEPTANCE

Bander AlSajjan and

CHARLES DENNIS

agenda
AGENDA
  • Importance of Internet Banking
  • Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Technology acceptance models
  • Theory of Planned Behaviour
  • Cross-cultural comparison
  • Conclusions
internet banking ib
INTERNET BANKING (IB)
  • Banking is a natural service for the Internet:
    • Intangible
    • Information-based
  • 85 % of UK bank customers use IB
  • Take-up is slow in many countries
  • Saudi Arabia is 25th ranked country by GDP
  • Only 20 % of Saudi Arabia’s bank customers use IB(Grais & Kantur, 2003)
theory of reasoned action tra
THEORY OF REASONED ACTION (TRA)
  • ‘Simple basis for identifying how to target consumers’ behaviour change attempts’(Sheppard et al, 1988)
  • Peoples behaviour is governed by:
    • Attitudes
    • Social factors and
    • Intention towards performing the behaviour(Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980)
technology acceptance model
TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL
  • Models adoption of IS in the workplace
  • Users do not use a system for its own sake but rather:
    • Evaluate the benefits and expect a certain utility
    • Less the disutility of using the system
  • TAM refers to these as:
    • Usefulness
    • Ease of use (EOU)(Davis, 1989)
perceived usefulness
PERCEIVED USEFULNESS
  • Perceived usefulness affects attitudes and intentions(Shih & Fang, 2004)

H1 Perceived usefulness has a positive effect on attitudinal intention

slide8

Improves banking performance

Easier to conduct banking

Perceived

Usefulness

Useful for banking transactions

attitudinal intentions
ATTITUDINAL INTENTIONS
  • Intentions have two components
    • Positive evaluation of the behaviour and
    • Facilitating conditions – equivalent to Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC) from the Theory of Planned Behaviour – orPerceived ease of use (from TAM)(Venkatesh et al, 2003)
  • Analogous to loyalty:
    • Attitudinal loyalty – the preference vs
    • Behavioural loyalty – subject to external constraints(Beerli et al, 2004)
attitudinal intentions10
ATTITUDINAL INTENTIONS
  • Positive evaluation and attitude are conceptually equivalent, which we term:Attitudinal Intentions
perceived manageability
PERCEIVED MANAGEABILITY
  • Attitude and social factors cannot be the sole determinants of behaviour when control is incomplete
  • Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) aims to improve on TRA by adding ‘perceived behavioural control (PBC)’ (Ajzen, 1991)
  • PBC is equivalent to computer ‘self efficacy’(Argarwal et al, 2000)
  • We combine these concepts as ‘Perceived Manageability’
perceived manageability12
PERCEIVED MANAGEABILITY
  • Perceived ease of use (PEOU) operates mainly through perceived usefulness (Ha & Stoel, 2008)

H2 Perceived manageability has a positive effect on users’ perceived usefulness

  • PEOU affects trust (Gefen et al, 2003)

H3 Perceived manageability has a positive effect on users’ users trust

trust14
TRUST

A willingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom one has confidence

(Moorman et al, 1992)

  • Trust is central to e-commerce intentions(Fortin et al, 2002)
  • Lack of trust is an obstacle to e-commerce intentions(Liu et al, 2004)
trust16
TRUST

A willingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom one has confidence

(Moorman et al, 1992)

  • Trust is central to e-commerce intentions and attitudes(Fortin et al, 2002; Pavlou, 2003)
  • Lack of trust is an obstacle to e-commerce intentions(Liu et al, 2004)

H4 Trust has a positive effect on users’ attitudinal intentions towards IB

trust18
TRUST
  • At higher levels of trust, customers perceive a website as more useful(Stewart, 2003)

H5 Trust has a positive effect on users’ perceived usefulness

social factors
SOCIAL FACTORS
  • ‘Subjective norms’ also influence intentions
    • Belief that important others dictate whether one should e-shop
    • Motivation to comply with important others
subjective norms sn
SUBJECTIVE NORMS (SN)
  • The effect of SN tends to be fully mediated (Vankatesh & Davies, 2000)
  • As a social force, we argue that SN acts through a social belief - trust

H6 SN has a positive effect on users’ trust

subjective norms sn21
SUBJECTIVE NORMS (SN)
  • Important others influence perceptions about manageability‘I will give it a try if my significant other says that it’s easy to do’

H7 SN has a positive effect on users’ perceived manageability

slide22

H2

Perceived Manageability

Perceived Usefulness

H1

H3

H5

Attitudinal Intentions

H7

H4

Trust Belief

Subjective Norms

H6

method
METHOD
  • Sample: undergraduate students
    • Younger and better educated, matching typical Internet early adopters
  • Paper questionnaires
  • Arabic questionnaire back-translated
  • In capital cities
questionnaire items
QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS
  • Intention (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000)
  • Attitude (Suh & Han, 2002)
  • PU & PEOU(Wang et al, 2003)
  • Self-efficacy & Control(Wang et al, 2003)
  • Trust (McKnight et al, 2002)
principle components analysis
PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS ANALYSIS
  • 6 factors extracted at Eigen > 1
    • Matching the hypothesised constructs
  • No cross-construct loadings > 0.3
    • Good discriminant validity
  • Factor loadings > 0.5
    • (except for 2 items, which were dropped)
    • Convergent validity
amos structural equation model
AMOS STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL
  • The path coefficients for H1 – H7 are significant
    • p < 0.03
  • Mediators:
    • Perceived usefulness and
    • Trust

fully mediate the impact of

    • Perceived manageability and
    • Subjective norm
slide29

0.6

Perceived Manageability

Perceived Usefulness

UK 0.5

KSA 0.7

0.5

0.3

Attitudinal Intentions

0.3

KSA 0.18

UK 0.6

Trust Belief

Subjective Norms

0.16

invariance analysis
INVARIANCE ANALYSIS

Multiple Group Analysis

Parameter subsets

Models

Measurement weights

Structural weights

OK

invariance analysis31
INVARIANCE ANALYSIS

Do the measures have the same meaning for the two groups of respondents?

Assuming that the unconstrained model is correctMeasurement weights are invariant across groups:

Δ chi ² = 21

Δ df = 12

p = 0.08

Only the 2nd perceived usefulness item reduces fit

Chosen as the constrained value

regression paths invariance
REGRESSION PATHS INVARIANCE
  • Since we have metric invariance, we can test regression path invariance
  • Comparing UK and KSA with all regression paths constrained equalSignificantly different, i.e. non-invariant across groups:
    • Δ chi ² = 16
    • Δ df = 7
    • p = 0.02
invariance analysis33
INVARIANCE ANALYSIS

Manage Models

Model Name

Structural weights

Parameter constraints

b1_1 = b1_2

b2_1 = b2_2

b3_1 = b3_2

b4_1 = b4_2

b5_1 = b5_2

invariance analysis34
INVARIANCE ANALYSIS

Manage Models

Model Name

Structural weights

Parameter constraints

b3_1 = b3_2

regression paths invariance35
REGRESSION PATHS INVARIANCE

Which regression paths are significantly different?

Each regression path in turn constrained equal across the 2 groups

All others freely estimated

non invariant regression weights37
NON-INVARIANT REGRESSION WEIGHTS

Saudi customers perceive system usefulness as more important than do UK customers

UK customers perceive a bank’s trustworthiness as more important than do Saudi customers

culture differences hofstede 1980
CULTURE DIFFERENCES(Hofstede, 1980)

Saudi customers perceive system usefulness as more important than do UK customers

In countries that tend to be more ‘feminine’, personal relationships are more valued (KSA),

Need more convincing of usefulness

In the more ‘masculine’ and assertive UK, the low social presence media are more accepted

Usefulness of Internet Banking may be taken for granted(Straub et al, 1997)

culture differences hofstede 198039
CULTURE DIFFERENCES(Hofstede, 1980)

UK customers perceive a bank’s trustworthiness as more important than do Saudis

People in high collectivism cultures (KSA) tend not to trust people outside their group

More likely to derive trust from relationships (Yamagishi & Yamagishi, 1994)

Individualistic cultures (UK) trust others

Rely on the environment to determine whether it is in another’s (i.e. the banks) interest to behave well(Bhawuk & Brislin, 1992)

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS

Cross-cultural questionnaires are feasible

The Internet Banking model has relevance across cultures

Behavioural models may vary psychometrically between cultures

conclusions41
CONCLUSIONS
  • Perceived manageability forms a single construct, aggregating the previous:
    • Perceived ease of use
    • Self-efficacy
    • Perceived control
  • Attitude is implicit in behavioural intentions
  • 80 % of the variance in Attitudinal Intention is explained by:
    • Perceived usefulness and
    • Trust
managerial implications
MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

Internet Banking is influenced by important others

Marketing communications need to consider word of mouth

Social networks?

spss amos invariance analysis across cultures case study internet banking acceptance43

SPSS AMOS INVARIANCE ANALYSIS ACROSS CULTURESCASE STUDY: INTERNET BANKING ACCEPTANCE

Bander AlSajjan and

CHARLES DENNIS