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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FOR IMO Dachang Du Senior Deputy Director Marine Environment Division International Maritime Organization St. Petersburg, October 2009 PREVENTION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM SHIPS MARPOL Annex VI adopted in 1997

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recent developments and current environmental challenges for imo
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FOR IMO

Dachang Du

Senior Deputy Director

Marine Environment Division

International Maritime Organization

St. Petersburg, October 2009

slide2

PREVENTION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM SHIPS

MARPOL Annex VI adopted in 1997

  • Prohibits ODS in line with the Montreal Protocol
  • Regulates exhaust gas emissions:
  • NOx - a reduction of 6-10% as compared with
  • un-regulated engines
  • SOx – Global cap – 4.5%
  • SECA cap – 1.5%
  • Greenhouse gases not covered
slide3

Ship emissions growing and becoming more conspicuous

  • As land-based sources of emissions were abated and stringently regulated, e.g. power plants & road transport, ship emissions were growing continuously – percentage-wise
slide5

Revision of Annex VI - Process

MEPC 53 (July 2005): decided to undertake the review

MEPC 54 ⇨ MEPC 55 ⇨ MEPC 56 ⇨ MEPC 57

MEPC 58 (October 2008): Adopted the revised text by consensus

tacit acceptance procedure
TACIT ACCEPTANCE PROCEDURE
  • The revised MARPOL Annex VI shall be deemed to have been accepted on
  • 1 January 2010, and shall enter into force on
  • 1 July 2010.
slide7

NOx requirements under the revised Annex VI

  • Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
  • Tier I is the current NOx limits,
  • implemented by the industry since 2000
  • Tier II NOx standard for new engines
  • installed on ships constructed on or after
  • 1 January 2011 – (a reduction of 15.5 – 21.8% from
  • Tier I levels)
  • Tier III NOx standard for new engines installed on ships
  • constructed on or after 1 January 2016 - (a reduction of
  • 80% from Tier I levels)
  • Existing engines installed between 1990 and 1999 with a
  • power rating of 5000 kW and a 90 litre per cylinder
  • volume will have to comply with Tier I
slide8

SOx requirements under the revised Annex VI

Sulphur oxides (SOx) & Particulate matter (PM)

PM is included in the scope of the amended Annex VI, but no explicit PM limits introduced, as PM will be

reduced as a function of reduced sulphur

Globally:

Prior to 1 January 2012 – sulphur limit – 4.50%

From 1 January 2012 - sulphur limit - 3.50 %

From 1 January 2020 - sulphur limit - 0.50 %

The 0.50 % sulphur limit will be subject to a review to be completed in 2018 and in the event the review is unsuccessful, the 0.50 % limit will default to 1 January 2025

slide9

ECAs under the revised Annex VI

In Emission Control Areas (ECAs)

Prior to 1 July 2010 – sulphur limit : 1.50%

From 1 July 2010 - sulphur limit : 1.00 %

From 1 January 2015 - sulphur limit : 0.10 %

Equivalents

The use of exhaust gas cleaning systems as well as other alternative technologies or fuels may be used to meet the sulphur limits.

two existing ecas
TWO EXISTING ECAs
  • The Baltic Sea
  • The North Sea

A NEW ECA?

MEPC 59 (July 2009) approved the North American Emission Control Area, which is expected to be adopted at MEPC 60 (March 2010)

slide11

THE CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE

UNFCCC, adopted in New York in 1992, in force from 1994Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997, in force from 2005. Article 2.2:

“The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from … marine bunkers fuels, working through … the International Maritime Organization, …”

slide12

Distribution of the world fleet March 2008

ships above 400 GT

Lloyd’s Register Fairplay

slide13

Flag States and ownership of the world fleet 2007

Largest flag States

Largest ship-owning countries

Source: UNCTAD, 2007.

slide14

IMO’s Work on Reduction of GHGfrom Ships

Air Pollution Conference in September 1997Resolution 8 on “CO2 emissions from ships”,

invites IMO to:

  • co-operate with UNFCCC
  • undertake a study on GHG emissions
  • consider feasible GHG reduction strategies
slide15

2000 IMO GHG study: Summary of conclusions

  • Significant potential for reduction from operational measures
  • - some operational measures will require participation of others than shipowners
  • Technical measures easier to implement through regulations
  • - new ships more feasible than retrofitting existing ships
  • - Measures related to hull, engines and propeller are
  • general measures for energy savings
  • Limited potential to prevent growth in the total emissions from
  • ships if the increase in demand for sea-transport continues
  • GHG emissions from ships: 1.8% of the world’s total
slide16

THE MEPC CONTINUED WORKING…

MEPC 53 (July 2005) ⇨ MEPC 54

MEPC 55 ⇨ MEPC 56 ⇨

MEPC 57 ⇨ MEPC 58 ⇨

MEPC 59 (July 2009)

2007 co2 emissions from ships
2007 CO2 emissions from ships

CO2 emissions – Million tons

High estimate: 1052

Low estimata: 682

Assessed uncertainty > +/- 20%

May improve with better activity data

(*) Forcast based on IEA 2005 data

comparison with other modes 2005
Comparison with other modes (2005)

Data: International Shipping: This study. Other IEA. Reference year: 2005

share of global emissions
Share of Global Emissions

Data: International Shipping: This study. Other IEA. Reference year: 2005

slide20

Outcome of MEPC 59

  • MEPC 59 agreed on a package of technical
  • and operation measure
  • MEPC 59 agreed on a work plan to continue
  • developing market-based mechanisms
  • After COP 15:
  • Regulatory action to be considered by
  • MEPC 60 (March 2010) and MEPC 61
  • (October 2010)
  • MEPC 59 benefited from the Second IMO GHG Study (2009)
summary of the second imo ghg study 2009
Summary of the Second IMO GHG Study (2009)

Carbon dioxide is the most important GHG emitted by ships

Shipping emits:

3.3% of the global anthropogenic CO2

International shipping: 2.7% of the global anthropogenic CO2

If no regulations, ship emissions may grow significantly as a result of growth in shipping

summary of the second imo ghg study 200922
Summary of the Second IMO GHG Study (2009)
  • There is a significant potential for reduction of GHG through technical and operational measures
  • Market-based instruments are the most environmentally effective and cost-effective instruments
  • A mandatory EEDI is a cost-effective measure to improve the efficiency of new ships
slide24

MEPC 59

  • MEPC 59 agreed to defer the debate on the
  • type of legal instrument and application
  • issues to MEPC 60, where the issues
  • should be discussed in light of the outcome
  • of COP 15
  • MEPC 59 agreed that any regulatory
  • scheme applied to GHG emissions from
  • international shipping should be developed
  • and enacted by IMO as the most competent
  • international body
slide25

MEPC 59

  • There was a general agreement that the
  • reduction levels for a potential market-based
  • instrument should be revisited at MEPC 60
  • MEPC 59 noted that it was a general
  • preference that the greater part of any funds
  • generated by a market-based instrument
  • under the auspices of IMO should be used
  • for climate change purposes in developing
  • countries through existing or new funding
  • mechanisms under the UNFCCC or other
  • internatonal organizations
  • Market-based measures: Fuel oil levy or emission trading?)
slide26

MEPC 59 agreed to circulate:

  • the interim Guidelines on the EEDI for new ships
  • the interim Guidelines for voluntary verification of
  • the EEDI
  • the Guidance on the SEEMP for all ships (new and
  • existing)
  • the Guidelines for voluntary use of the EEOI
  • MEPC 59 noted the discussion on ships and propulsion systems not fully compatible with the current EEDI and invited comments to MEPC 60
energy efficiency design index
Energy Efficiency Design Index
  • Cost: Emissions of CO2
  • Benefit: Cargo capacity & transport work

Complex formula to accommodate most ship types and sizes

ship energy efficiency management plan
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
  • Onboard management tool to include:
  • Improved voyage planning (Weather routeing/Just in
  • time)
  • Speed and power optimization
  • Optimized ship handling(ballast/use of rudder and
  • autopilot)
  • Improved fleet management
  • Improved cargo handling
  • Energy management
energy efficiency operational indicator

Fuel Consumption in Operation

Actual Fuel

Consumption

Index

=

Cargo Onboard x (Distance traveled)

Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator
  • An efficiency indicator for all ships (new and existing) obtained from fuel consumption, voyage (miles) and cargo data (tonnes)
slide30

COP 15 Outcome

  • Three main IMO objectives:
  • IMO continues to be entrusted to develop and
  • enact global regulations to limit or reduce GHG
  • emissions from ships engaged in international
  • trade
  • The regulations are applied to ships according
  • to the non-discriminatory principle on which the
  • IMO regulatory framework is based
  • The interests of developing countries are fully
  • taken into account
thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention!

For more information please see: www.imo.org