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Project Planning The Basic Questions. Questions too ask before planning What is the managers role in Planning? Who is the author and how involved is the team? Combining the efforts of the Project Team. What is covered by Planning? When do we begin Planning? When do we stop Planning?.

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Project Planning The Basic Questions


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project planning the basic questions
Project PlanningThe Basic Questions
  • Questions too ask before planning
    • What is the managers role in Planning?
      • Who is the author and how involved is the team?
      • Combining the efforts of the Project Team.
    • What is covered by Planning?
    • When do we begin Planning?
    • When do we stop Planning?

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

the project survival test and why is it important
The Project Survival test and why is it important?
  • The test focuses attention on those elements of project planning identified as classic mistakes.
  • Management has the responsibility to guide the project away from making the classic mistakes.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

a survival test
A Survival Test
  • Requirements
    • Is there a vision and does the team view it as realistic?
      • Where is the project going and what are you delivering to the customer?
    • Does the project have documented, clear, unambiguous and complete requirements?
    • Does the project team have access to the customer?

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

a survival test1
A Survival Test
  • Planning
    • Does the project have a detailed, written Software Development plan?
    • Was the plan updated at the completion of the last project phase?
    • Does the project have a quality plan?
      • How is quality defined for this project?
    • Are the projects resources allocated at 100%?
    • Was the plan approved by all the stakeholders?

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

a survival test2
A Survival Test
  • Project Control
    • Are resources allocated to manage the project?
    • Does the project have well-defined binary milestones?
    • Does the project have a documented change control plan?
  • Risk Management
    • Does the project have a written risk management plan?
    • Does the project have a written change control plan?

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

the relationship between process and planning
The Relationship between Process and Planning
  • Without some process effort is wasted in thrashing.
  • Planning not only helps define the project and the resources needed to complete the project, but it defines what processes will be used.
  • The key is to plan for only the minimum amount of process needed, but this requires understanding your project.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

when does project planning begin
When does Project Planning begin?
  • Some level of planning needs to occur as soon as resources are working on the project.
  • Early planning is intended to get answers to the following questions:
    • How long will the requirements process take?
    • How will requirements be gathered?
    • Who needs to be involved?
    • Preliminary estimates are needed to assure that requirements are realistic.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

when does project planning end
When does Project Planning end?
  • Have all steps been completed?
    • Has the product been delivered?
    • Is it being supported?
    • Can it be ordered?
    • Have you recorded what can be learned from the project?

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project planning the traditional view
Project Planning the Traditional View
  • Project management is concerned with planning and allocating resources to ensure the delivery of quality software systems on time and within budget.
    • Project communications
    • Project organization
    • Estimating resources required
    • What processes are used

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project planning the traditional view1
Project Planning the Traditional View
  • Determining the schedule
  • Ensuring the completeness and correctness of requirements
  • Tracking progress
  • Determining the project’s lifecycle
  • Identifying and managing risks
  • Ensuring that the product has a correct design
  • Ensuring delivery of a quality product
  • Controlling change

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

software project plan as a communications tool
Software Project Plan as a communications tool
  • The software project plan identifies all stakeholders for the project and their relationship to the project.
  • The software project plan serves as a repository of project information.
  • The software project plan informs all stakeholders what is expected of them and what they can expect of others.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

the relationship between project planning and the project plan
The relationship between project planning and the project plan
  • Project planning and the project plan serve have different objectives
  • Project planning is a series of steps that establishes what we intend to do.
  • The Project Plan documents the results of the planning process for all stakeholders.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

spp as a communications tool
SPP as a communications tool
  • It is critical to inform others of their roles and expected timeframes for their participation.
    • Software Publications
    • Peer Development groups
    • Support
    • Sales

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

spp as a communications tool1
SPP as a communications tool
  • As a communications tool the SPP can only be effective if it reflects the current state of the planning process.
  • Therefore since project planning is dynamic the SPP also must be dynamic to remain current.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project size and scope affect the planning and process needed
Project size and scope affect the planning and process needed.
  • Number of communications interfaces
  • Number of locations
  • Project length
  • Project control direct or influence?
    • Who does decide
    • What does it take to make a decision

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

core teams and their role in project planning
Core Teams and Their Role in Project Planning
  • Core Teams provide input from peer and support groups.
  • Core Teams spread the responsibility among major stakeholders.
  • Core Teams facilitate communications.
  • Core Teams spread ownership.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

sample project plan template
Sample Project Plan template
  • Introduction and project scope
  • Project stakeholders and organization
  • Project requirements
  • Resource estimates
  • Project technical lifecycle
  • Project schedule
  • Technical description and software design

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

sample project plan template1
Sample Project Plan template
  • Project standards and procedures
    • Development processes used
    • Review process
    • Change control boards
  • Quality Plan
    • Test plan
  • Documentation plan
  • Risk management plan

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

sample project plan template2
Sample Project Plan template
  • Training and support plans
  • Configuration management plan
  • Communications plan

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

spp notes
SPP notes
  • It is better to list topics and say no action is required rather than to not list a topic and have the reader wonder if it was just ignored.
  • SPPs are dynamic
    • There must always be a discrepancy between concepts and reality, because the former are static and the latter is dynamic and flowing.
    • Plans need to change to reflect actions taken to correct problems.
  • Reference other documents rather than repeating the information.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project phases
Project Phases
  • Project initiation, creating the plan
    • Definition and requirements
    • Identify stakeholders and project organization
    • Initial project design and resource estimates
    • Communications plan and project infrastructure
    • Iterate on the initial steps until a working plan is ready

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project phases1
Project Phases
  • Steady state, following the plan
    • Status monitoring
    • Project tracking
    • Risk assessment
    • Periodic replanning and estimation
    • Project development

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project phases2
Project Phases
  • Project completion, final wrap up
    • Release readiness
    • Installation
    • Training and support
    • Postmortem
      • Learning from experience

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project life cycle
Project Life Cycle
  • Business lifecycle versus technical lifecycle
    • A business lifecycle generally follows a funding model and only flows in one direction.
    • You can not unspend money that has already been spent.
    • Technical lifecycles are much more dynamic and allow for decisions to be changed and rework as more information becomes available.
    • Lifecycles for Software Projects differ greatly from the lifecycles of other types of projects.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project lifecycle models
Project Lifecycle Models
  • Waterfall
    • Waterfall variants
  • SCRUM
  • Spiral model
  • Sawtooth/Shark Tooth Model
  • Unified Software Development Model
  • Staged Delivery
  • Extreme Programming

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

why is the technical lifecycle important and how is it different from the business model
Why is the Technical Lifecycle Important and how is it different from the Business Model?
  • The Business Model follows a budget flow, but it does not typically follow the flow of work products.
  • The Technical Lifecycle communicates to everyone how the development will progress.
    • Is changed expected?
    • Will earlier decisions be revisited?

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

waterfall model
Waterfall Model
  • Classic development model that parallels a typical business lifecycle.
  • All stages flow forward, rework is not expected.
  • Stages
    • Concept
    • Requirements Analysis

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

waterfall model1
Waterfall Model
    • Architectural design
    • Detailed design
    • Coding and Debugging
    • System test
  • Does not work when change is expected.
    • Requirements change
    • Changes in the project environment

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

waterfall model2
Waterfall Model
  • On real projects often you complete some phase under the Waterfall Model only to realize later the need to go back and redo phases.
  • This often has a major impact on management who believed that once something is complete it is done.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

spiral model
Spiral Model
  • The need to define “risk”
    • Poorly understood requirements
    • Performance issues
    • New technology
    • Incomplete design
  • Basic cycle
    • Determine objectives

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

spiral
Spiral
    • Identify and resolve risks
    • Evaluate alternatives
    • Develop and verify deliverables for this iteration
    • Plan next iteration
  • The key is to know when to stop the spiral and complete the project
  • Iterations do not produce customer deliverables
  • Project management is more important than in other models.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

extreme programming
Extreme Programming
  • Development methodology that stresses customer involvement.
  • Methodology that plans and designs only near term deliverables
  • Stress refactoring of previous work.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

choosing the correct lifecycle
Choosing the correct Lifecycle
  • Staff factors
    • Level of experience
    • Willingness to accept change
  • Business factors
    • Critical constraints
  • Senior management
    • Willingness to trust and live with uncertainty

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

choosing the correct lifecycle1
Choosing the correct Lifecycle
  • Technical factors
    • Maturity of the technology
    • Completeness of the requirements
    • Risk factors
  • Customer factors
    • Involvement
    • Willingness to expend resources

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

project change control
Project Change Control
  • Why is it needed?
  • How much is needed?
  • Typical ways to implement

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

why change control
Why Change Control
  • Knowing what you will deliver
    • Being able to get agreement and inform everyone when changes are made.
  • Controlling resources
    • Commitments are made with knowledge of the consequences.
  • Making sure all pieces integrate together

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

how much change control is needed
How much change control is needed?
  • Not all elements of the project need the same level of control.
    • Requirements
    • Features to be tested
    • Features to be documented
    • Design

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

change control boards
Change Control Boards
  • One board or many
    • Focus on areas of interest
    • Availability of resources
    • Knowledge base
  • Document Decisions
  • Inform stakeholders

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009

the role of mov
The Role of MOV
  • Most projects that first time project managers are responsible for have a well defined MOV, their value is generally unquestioned.
  • As project managers become more experienced they will need to define the MOV for their projects.
  • What an project manager never wants is a project that has an unrecognized MOV.

Computer Engineering 203 R Smith

Project Planning 1/2009