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slide1

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Material

For

Marine and Armor Plate

Applications

alustar tm a strong marine armor plate material
ALUSTAR TMA Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material
  • AL-Mg Alloys in General: Among all aluminum alloys, the non-heat treatable Al-Mg alloys (5xxx series) are the most suitable material for marine applications. Magnesium, as the main alloying constituent, lends itself to reasonable strength for marine applications. More important, however, is the corrosion resistance of Al-Mg alloys which makes them the most suitable material for shipbuilding.
  • Effect of Mg on Strength: The relationship between Magnesium content of 5xxx alloys and its mechanical properties, i.e. yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation, is given in slide 7. The main reason for increasing strength is the formation of Al-Mg intermetallic particles which reinforce the alloy.
  • Effect of Mg on Corrosion Resistance: Theoretically, increasing the Mg content will add to strength. However, when Mg% is raised above approximately 4%, the corrosion resistance of the alloy will gradually decrease. The reason for this phenomenon is that at higher Mg%, the Al-Mg intermetallic particles will start precipitating at the grain boundaries. These particles are anodic relative to Aluminum and thus they cause electrochemical imbalance in the grains which leads to “Inter Granular Corrosion”. This causes pitting and weight loss. Furthermore, IGC may lead to “Stress Corrosion Cracking”.
alustar tm a strong marine armor plate material3
ALUSTAR TMA Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material
  • Alloys AA5083 and AA5456: Alloy 5083 has been a popular shipbuilding alloy for a couple of decades. With the average Mg content of 4.4%, it provides a yield strength of 31 KSI, ultimate tensile strength of 44 KSI and an elongation of 10%. The corrosion resistance of AA5083 has been quite satisfactory for marine applications. However, the need for a higher strength marine alloy gradually became apparent as more aluminum vessels were built; specially for fast ferries and catamarans where weight saving and higher speed became an important issue. An alternative high strength alloy was AA5456 which is mainly used for military applications and coast guard vessels. The Mg level in this alloy is up to 5.5% which produces a yield strength of about 35 KSI and UTS of about 48 KSI with somewhat lower elongation (less formability). However, the lower corrosion resistance became evident as no special treatment for corrosion resistance was done. Although this alloy is still recommended in military and government specifications, Its use has drastically affected the design and maintenance of the vessels. For example, coast guard rescue bots made of this alloy have a very tight service interval. Also, for vessels operating in sea water (salt water), the lower part of the hull is painted with multiple layers of epoxy paint.
alustar tm a strong marine armor plate material4
ALUSTAR TMA Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material
  • Alloy AA5383: Alloy AA5383 was developed in the nineties, in an effort to increase strength. The Mg content of this alloy is slightly higher than that of AA5083 and this has increased the yield strength to 32 KSI or 220 MPa (about 1 KSI more than AA5083) while the UTS and Elongation remain the same. The yield strength and UTS after welding is 20 KSI and 42 KSI respectively and this is about 2 KSI higher than AA5083. There has been no official reports of reduced corrosion resistance as due to minimal increase in Mg content and strength, the difference in corrosion resistance with that of AA5083 may appear in several years. We are aware of one case where this alloy was used in a Catamaran which was exposed to elevated temperature (200 F) for a couple of months (the vessel was under extreme sunlight) and significant amount of pitting was reported. This was attributed to sensitization due to added Magnesium. Currently, several vessels made of AA5383 are in service. However, the slight increase in strength has not been used for down gauging and subsequent weight saving.
alustar tm a strong marine armor plate material5
ALUSTAR TMA Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material
  • Alloy AA5059 ALUSTAR: In the development of Alustar, we had two major goals; 1) Increase strength, both before and after welding, by at least 20% so that the user can use a thinner gauge and thus build a lighter vessel or alternatively build a vessel with 20% higher overall strength, and 2) keep the corrosion resistance at the same level or better than that of AA5083.
  • Strength: By adding up to 6.0% Mg, and subtle amounts of Zr and Mn we can guarantee a minimum yield strength of 270 MPa (39 KSI) and UTS of 370 MPa (53 KSI), while elongation (which lends itself to formability) remains at 10%.
  • Corrosion resistance: By the application of a proprietary thermo-mechanical process and the addition of controlled amount of Zn we were able to keep all the major intermetallic particles inside the grain and prevent any excessive electro-chemical imbalance and thus avoid corrosion susceptibility. Extensive corrosion tests performed and documented under the supervision of classification societies such as DNV show that the corrosion resistance of Alustar is better or equal to that of AA 5083.
  • Weld Properties: We have also been able to improve welding and heat affected zone (HAZ) strength by controlling the re-crystallization rate during welding and to avoid the formation of large grains.
slide6

Alloying Constituents

AA5083Alustar

[Weight%] [Weight%]

Mg 4.0-4.9 5.0-6.0

Mn 0.4-1.0 0.6-1.2

Zn 0-0.25 0.4-1.5

Zr - 0.05-0.25

Cr 0.05-0.25 0-0.3

Cu 0-0.10 0-0.4

Fe 0-0.4 0-0.5

Si 0-0.4 0-0.5

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

CHEMISTRY

slide7

Alustar: Influence of Magnesium Content

On YS, UTS, and Elongation (5xxx alloys)

58 KSI

43.5 KSI

14.5 KSI

slide8

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

In Principle, increasing the Mg content

In Aluminum Magnesium alloys will increase

Strength. However, beyond 4.5% Mg, the

Corrosion resistance decreases, due to

Precipitation of ANODIC Al-Mg Intermetallic

Particles at the grain boundaries. The alloy then

Becomes susceptible to inter-granular corrosion.

Using controlled amounts of Zn will create

Mg-Zn intermetallics which in combination of

Special thermo-mechanical processes, will stay

Inside the grains and compensates for the

electro-chemical imbalance. Mn and Zr are

also added in controlled amounts to add strength

and delay the process of re-crystallization in

the HAZ to produce a fine grain structure

after welding

CORROSION RESISTANT

MICROSTRUCTUREAA 5083 / H321 TEMPER

SUSCEPTIBLE TO IGC

CORROSION

slide9

PROPERTIES AA5083Alustar

Density at 20°C [g/cm³] 2.66 2.64

Approximate Melting Range [°C] 574-638 568-636

Coefficient of Linear thermal 20-100°C 24.2 23.0

expansion 20-200°C 25.0 24.5

[µm/m.K] 20-300°C 26.0 25.9

Specific heat at 20°C [J/kg.K] 900 890

Electrical conductivity at 20°C [%IACS] 29 27.1

Electrical resistivity at 20°C [µWcm] 5.95 6.3

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Physical Properties of AA5083 and Alustar Alloys

slide10

400

40

Thickness Range 2-20mm

350

35

300

370

30

ELONGATION (%)

STRENGTH (MPa)

250

25

305

305

200

20

270

150

15

100

10

220

215

5

50

0

0

10

10

10

YS

YS

YS

UTS

UTS

UTS

Elongation

Elongation

Elongation

AA5083

AA5383

ALUSTAR

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

MINIMUM TENSILE PROPERTIES TEMPER: H321 / H116

53

KSI

39

KSI

44

KSI

44

KSI

31

KSI

32

KSI

slide11

32 mm

32 mm

32 mm

> 20 mm:

> 20 mm:

Min 10 %

Min 360 MPa

Min 260 MPa

25 mm

25 mm

25 mm

16 mm

16 mm

16 mm

< 20 mm:

< 20 mm:

Min 370 MPa

Min 270 MPa

14 mm

14 mm

14 mm

12 mm

12 mm

12 mm

10 mm

10 mm

10 mm

Gauge

Gauge

Gauge

9 mm

9 mm

9 mm

8 mm

8 mm

8 mm

7 mm

7 mm

7 mm

6 mm

6 mm

6 mm

5 mm

5 mm

5 mm

4 mm

4 mm

4 mm

5

10

15

20

25

250

270

290

310

330

350

375

400

425

Proof Strength [MPa]

Elongation [%]

Ultimate Tensile Strength [MPa]

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

STATISTICS

Tensile Properties of Several Lots of H321 Temper Alustar Alloy Material

slide12

300

290

275

160

140

125

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

After WELD STRENGTH

42 KSI

43.5 KSI

40 KSI

300

250

23 KSI

200

STRENGTH (MPa)

23 KSI

20 KSI

18 KSI

150

100

50

0

UTS

UTS

UTS

YS

YS

YS

AA5083

AA5383

ALUSTAR

MIG-welded Plates in H321 with AA5183 Filler Wire

slide13

Typical Tensile Properties Obtained from Cross Weld Tensile Tests

40

40

35

35

16

16

Gauge[mm]

Gauge[mm]

10

10

8

8

6

6

125

175

225

270

320

UTS [MPa]

Yield Strength [MPa]

ALUSTAR TM

Material

After WELD STRENGTH

slide14

WELD POOL METAL

BASE PLATE [ALUSTAR]

BASE PLATE [ALUSTAR]

HAZ

HAZ

FUSION LINE

Grain Structure Modification by Welding

By the addition of controlled amounts of

Zr and Mn re-crystallization during welding

Is delayed and a finer grain structure is achieved

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

WELD STRUCTURE

slide15

135

ALUSTAR (H321, t = 8 mm)

125

115

105

Hardness ( HV 5 )

95

AA 5083 (H321, t = 8 mm)

85

75

65

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance to the middle of weldseam (mm)

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

Hardnessprofile of MIG - welded Alustar H321

and AA5083 H321

½”

1.0”

1.5”

2.0”

slide16

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

MIG - WELDING AND SIDE BEND TEST

Alustar MIG-welded with Filler Wire AA 5183

slide17

400

375

350

UTS [MPa]

325

ALUSTAR

300

5083

Poly. (ALUSTAR)

275

Poly. (5083)

30

250

0

5

10

15

ALUSTAR

25

Additional Cold Reduction [%]

5083

Poly. (ALUSTAR)

20

350

Poly. (5083)

Elongation [%]

300

15

250

Proof Strength [MPa]

10

ALUSTAR

200

5083

Poly. (ALUSTAR)

150

5

Poly. (5083)

0

5

10

15

100

0

5

10

15

Additional Cold Reduction [%]

Additional Cold Reduction [%]

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

FORMABILITY

Influence of Strain Hardening

on Alustar and 5083 by Cold

Deformation on Formability

slide18

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

BENDABILITY

Photomacrograph Showing the 8mm Gauge Alustar Alloy Samples after Bend Test

slide19

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

CORROSION TEST METHODS

ASSET Test [ASTM G66]

Measures Pitting and Exfoliation Resistance

Materials Tested : Unwelded / Welded / Various Gauges Sensitized and Un-sensitized

Weight Loss Test [ASTM G67]

Assesses Intergranular Corrosion

Materials Tested : Unwelded Plate / Various Gauges

SCC [ASTM G39/AIR 0948-147]

Materials Tested : Unwelded / Welded / Various Gauges

Sensitized and Un-sensitized

slide20

Plate

Welded Panel

AA5083

Alustar

AA5083

Alustar

MIG-welded with AA5183

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

CORROSION TEST

ASSET Corrosion Test Results before and after Welding of AA5083 and Alustar

slide21

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

CORROSION TEST

Surface of Sensitized Samples after the ASSET Test

slide22

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

STRESS CORROSION

Method:

Intermittently Immersion in 3,5% NaCl (AIR 9048 Test).

Applied Stress (LT): 195 N/mm2 (130 N/mm2 Welded)

Gauge Thickness: 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25 mm.

Material:

Alustar sensitized for 7 days at 100º C

Result:

No SCC after 8000 hours

slide23

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

FATIGUE AFTER WELDING

S-N Curves

(24)170

ALUSTAR/AA5183

STRESS (KSI)MPa

(19)130

AA5083/AA5183

(13)90

(7)50

1,00E+05

2,10E+06

4,10E+06

6,10E+06

8,10E+06

1,01E+07

NUMBER OF CYCLES

alustar tm a strong marine armor plate material24
ALUSTAR TMA Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

ALUSTAR TM

A Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material

SUMMARY

  • Mechanical Properties, Fatigue and Impact

More than 20% better than AA5083 before and after Welding

  • Corrosion Resistance

Better or equal as AA5083 before and after Welding and in Sensitized Condition

  • Formability, Weldability, Toughness and Physical PropertiesComparable to AA5083
  • Consistent Quality and Manufacturing Experience

Several Thousand Tons in Fast Ferry, Military and Yacht Applications

  • Approvals from Major Classification Societies

Improvement of Design Criteries by Fatigue Testing on Construction Details

alustar tm a strong marine armor plate material25
ALUSTAR TMA Strong Marine & Armor Plate Material
  • For Further Information:-
  • Tel:- +44 20 7681 1505
  • Fax- +44 870 168 0554
  • Email:- info@aluminumnow.com
  • Websites:- www.aluminumnow.comwww.catamaranferries.com