Faculty of Engineering. Optimisation: Getting More and Better for Less. Inaugural Lecture by Vassili Toropov Professor of Aerospace and Structural Engineering School of Civil Engineering School of Mechanical Engineering. Why do we call it that way?.
Opis: Roman goddess of abundance and fertility.
“Opis is said to be the wife of Saturn. By her the Gods designated the earth, because the earth distributes all goods to the human gender“. Festus
Meanings of the word: "riches, goods, abundance, gifts, munificence, plenty".
The word optimus - the best - was derived from her name.
A formal mathematical optimization problem: to find components of the vectorxof design variables:
whereF(x)is the objective function,gj(x)are the constraint functions, the last set of inequality conditions defines the side constraints.
MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
Human activity only
Natural and human activity
‘A large part of the warming is likely to be attributable to human activities’
Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change
Honda F1 goes green!
Honda F1 “Earth Car”
Greenpeace: “Binge flying”
The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) includes EU aeronautics industry, Member States, the Commission, Eurocontrol, research centres, airlines, regulators and European users.
11 November 2002: The Strategic Research Agenda in Aeronautics fully endorsed. It will serve as a blueprint in the planning of national and EU research programmes.
The Strategic Research Agenda in Aeronautics aims, by the year 2020, to achieve
ACARE: The objectives are not achievable without important breakthroughs, in both technology and in concepts of operation - evolutions of current concepts will not be sufficient.
Wright brother’s Flier, FF: 17 December, 1903
Boeing 367-80, FF: 15 July 1954
Airbus A-380, FF: 27 April 2005
Still, things are changing…
Boeing 787, FF: expected in 2007. Composite primary structure
Alternative fuel advantages
Alternative fuel challenges
It is very likely that the pressure for a greener aircraft will result in a dramatic change of the aircraft design concept in near(-ish) future
This will be a major challenge for multidisciplinary optimisation!
Possibly, the pressure for a greener aircraft would push the civil aviation development as hard as the stealth technology pushed the development of military aircraft.
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk
FF: 17 July 1989 FF: 18 June 1981
AIRBUS UK RETURN ON INVESTMENT
Note that a truss-like wing rib structure has been obtained that is different from a traditional plate with openings
Let us look at some historic parallels
Later, the truss-like wing rib structures have been mostly replaced by plates with openings and only occasionally used, notably, in Concorde.Topology optimisation produced a truss-like structure again.
Case StudiesF1 Jaguar Racing Wing
FIA 50kg point loading
Is it a blip?
Find optimum blank shape
to minimise waste of material
Hiroshima University and Mazda Corp.
High-fidelity model (Fine mesh)
Time: 150 sec.
Low-fidelity model (Coarse mesh)
Time: 10 sec.
John Koza: Genetic Programming
Example: Tree structure for the expression
Find: normalised shear strength using experimental data
Normalised shear strength:
Dr Ashraf Ashour, Bradford University
Carren M.E. Holden, Sowerby Research Centre, BAE Systems (1998)
Objective: cost minimisation
Design variables: numbers of steel sections from a catalogue
Constraints: defined by BS 5950
Two landing scenarios – Flat bottom and Inclined rock impacts
All requirements are satisfied by the baseline design
Baseline design: deceleration 980g (target <70g)
Another one bites the dust!