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Lingual Lipase. FFA + DAGs (miniscule amounts). Lipids: Triacylglycerols. 1a. Cholesterol esters Phospholipids. Lingual Lipase ("acid-stable"). FFA + DAGs (small amounts). 1b. MOUTH. Triacylglycerols. STOMACH. STEP 1: Digestion in the Mouth and Stomach.

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slide1

Lingual Lipase

FFA + DAGs

(miniscule amounts)

Lipids: Triacylglycerols

1a

Cholesterol esters

Phospholipids

Lingual Lipase

("acid-stable")

FFA + DAGs

(small amounts)

1b

MOUTH

Triacylglycerols

STOMACH

STEP 1: Digestion in the Mouth and Stomach

Courtesy of Dr. Marc Tischler

slide2

CCK-PZ

stimulates

secretion

from stomach

FFA

Trypsinogen

Pancreatic

lipase

Pancreatic

Procolipase

Pancreatic

esterase

Pancreatic ProPLA2

EXOCRINE

PANCREAS

trypsinogen,

procolipase,

lipase, esterase,

HCO3-, proPLA2

Endocrine cell

Cholecystokin-pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)

via bloodstream

Bile Salt

storage

SMALL INTESTINE

duodenum/jejunum

Bile Acid

Synthesis

Conjuga-

tionLIVER

GALL BLADDER

CCK-PZ causes contraction

STEP 2: Enzymatic Digestion in the Duodenum/Jejunum –

secretion of zymogens/bile salts

Courtesy of Dr. Marc Tischler

slide3

LIVER

Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids

FFA,

2MG

3b

cholesterol

lysolecithin

vitamin A

3b

Portal vein

Released

bile acids

Short/medium

chain FFA

Reabsorbed by ileum

Capillaries

SMALL INTESTINE

duodenum/jejunum

Mixed Micelles

4

STEP 3b: Bile Acid Recycling

STEP 4: Lipid Absorption

Courtesy of Dr. Marc Tischler

slide4

6b

To lacteals and thoracic duct (lymphatic system)

B48

Chylomicron

vitamins

D, E, K

6a

Coating with apolipoprotein

(with TTP)

Cholesterol

ester

Phospholipid

Triacyl-

glycerol

5

ACAT

reesterification

FFA,

2MG

cholesterol

lysolecithin

vitamin A

SMALL INTESTINE

duodenum/jejunum

Triacylglycerol transfer protein

Acyl CoA: cholesterol acyl transferase

STEP 5: Re-esterification

STEP 6: Chylomicron Assembly

and Export

Courtesy of Dr. Marc Tischler

slide5

chylomicron interacts with lipoprotein lipase removing FFA

Nascent chylo-microns acquire apo CII (C) and E (E) from HDL

C E

C E

C E

C E

C E

C E

C E

C E

C E

Lymph system:

Chylomicrons to capillaries via lymph

INTEST

INE

non-hepatic tissues

ApoB48 aids with chylo-micron assembly

LIVER

Chylomicrons carry dietary fatty acids to tissues and the remnants take cholesterol to the liver

slide6

chylomicron interacts with lipoprotein lipase removing FFA

Lymph system:

INTEST

INE

chylomicron acquires apo CII (C) and E (E) from HDL

C E

C E

C E

C E

C E

E

C E

C E

E

C E

C E

C

E

C

chylomicron remnants lose CII to HDL

E

C

E

E

E

Liver: apo E receptor takes up remnants to deliver cholesterol

non-hepatic tissues

ApoB48

LIVER

Chylomicrons carry dietary fatty acids to tissues and the remnants take cholesterol to the liver

Courtesy of Dr. Marc Tischler