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Loculoascomycetes. General Mycology 421/521 Lecture 9. Loculoascomycetes. Functionally bitunicate asci (=fissitunicate, Jack-in-the-Box type) Extensible inner wall = endotunica Inextensible outer wall = exotunica Ascospores generally septate Anamorph conidia often similar in septation

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loculoascomycetes

Loculoascomycetes

General Mycology 421/521

Lecture 9

loculoascomycetes2
Loculoascomycetes
  • Functionally bitunicate asci (=fissitunicate, Jack-in-the-Box type)
    • Extensible inner wall = endotunica
    • Inextensible outer wall = exotunica
  • Ascospores generally septate
    • Anamorph conidia often similar in septation
  • Unwalled locules in ascostroma (=ascolocular)—ascoma is initiated by formation of locule within stroma before formation of dikaryon
slide3

Elsinoe

Pleospora

Dothidea

Images from http://www.tolweb.org/onlinecontributors/app?page=ImageGallery&service=external&sp=l29051&sp=0

slide5

Endotunica

Exotunica

ascostromatal types
Ascostromatal types

Hysteriothecium

Pseudothecium

Thyrothecium

slide7

From Blackwell et al. 2006. Mycologia 98: 834

Loculoascomycetes = Dothideomycetes

importance
Importance
  • Endophytes
  • Animal Pathogens
  • Plant Pathogens
    • Cochliobolus heterostrophus Southern Corn Leaf Blight
    • Venturia inaequalis Apple Scab
  • Toxins (secondary metabolites)—host specific
    • T-toxins (Bipolaris maydis)
    • Alternaria toxins
orders
Orders
  • Pleosporales
  • Hysteriales
  • Botryosphaeriales
  • Capnodiales
  • Dothideales
  • Myriangiales

paraphysate Dothideomycetes

Lack paraphyses or pseudoparaphyses—aparaphysate Dothideomycetes

Tree of Life Page for Dothideomycetes

order pleosporales
Order Pleosporales
  • Relatively large asci
  • Septate pseudoparaphyses
  • Well known taxa:
    • Cochliobolus heterostrophus (southern corn leaf blight)
    • Leptosphaeria maculans (black leg of rape seed)
    • Phaeosphaeria nodorum (stagonospora blotch of cereals)
    • Important anamorphs include Alternaria, Stemphylium, Drechslera, Ascochyta, Phoma, Pyrenochaeta
pleospora
Pleospora

From Hanlin, 1990

pyrenophora
Pyrenophora

From Hanlin, 1990

slide16

Exserohilum—conidia fusiform-cylindrical to obclavate with protuberant hilum; germination bipolar. Setosphaeria teleomorphs.

slide17

Bipolaris—conidia fusoid, hilum not protuberant; germination bipolar. Cochliobolus teleomorphs.

helminthosporium
Helminthosporium
  • Once used for species now placed in Bipolaris, Drechslera, and Exserohilum
  • Restricted to species with obclavate conidia formed on straight conidiophores
  • Occurring on non-grass hosts
slide20

Alternaria

Beaked dictyospores formed in acropetal chains; Lewia teleomorph

venturia
Venturia
  • Globose pseudothecia formed in overwintered leaves
  • Unequally two-celled ascospores
  • Spilocaea anamorph with annellidic conidiogenous cells
order botryosphaeriales
Order Botryosphaeriales
  • Includes Botryosphaeria and Guignardia—one-celled, hyaline to pale brown ascospores
  • Anamorphs pycnidial, phialidic
  • Diebacks, cankers, witches’ brooms and leaf blights

http://www.crem.fct.unl.pt/botryosphaeria_site/

orders of aparaphysate dothideomycetes
Orders of aparaphysate Dothideomycetes
  • Capnodiales
  • Dothideales
  • Myriangiales

Lack paraphyses or pseudoparaphysesaparaphysate

Tree of Life Page for Dothideomycetes

order capnodiales
Order Capnodiales
  • Used in the traditional sense for sooty molds (leaf epiphytes associated with honeydew of insects)
  • Now includes families
    • Capnodiaceae—sooty molds
    • Davidiellaceae—Cladosporium anamorphs
    • Mycosphaerellaceae--Mycosphaerella
    • Piedraiaceae
family capnodiaceae
Family Capnodiaceae
  • “Sooty Molds”—form dense, dark, tangled mixtures of hyphae on plant stems and leaves
  • Often associated with honeydew exudates of insects
  • Produce superficial ascocarps on well-developed subiculum
sooty molds
Sooty Molds

From USDA Forest Service

North Central Research Station

family mycosphaerellaceae
Family Mycosphaerellaceae
  • Mycosphaerella sensu lato (now in 4 different genera)
  • Over 3000 species
    • > 30 different anamorphs recognized (Cercospora-like)
  • Small pseudothecia lacking pseudoparaphyses
  • Many important plant pathogens
  • Reference: Crous et al. 2007. Studies in Mycology 58:1-32.
family davidiellaceae
Family Davidiellaceae
  • Cladosporium anamorphs have protuberant, thickened, darkened scars
  • Teleomorph Davidiella, similar to Mycosphaerella
family piedraiaceae

Genus/Species:Piedraia hortae

  • Image Type:Macroscopic Morphology
  • Title: Black piedra
  • Disease(s): Piedra, black
  • Legend: Ascomycete fruiting body on a human hair.
Family Piedraiaceae

http://www.doctorfungus.org

Piedraia hortae—causes black piedra; a specialized parasite on hair of primates in moist tropical areas

order dothideales
Order Dothideales
  • Dothidea and allied genera
    • Small ascomata and relatively few asci
    • Biotrophs, necrotrophs and saprobes on plant tissue
  • Black yeast anamorphs, including Aureobasidium, Hormonema

Dothidea ascus by Sabine Huhndorf from TOL site

aureobasidium pullulans sydowia polyspora
Aureobasidium pullulans (=Sydowia polyspora)
  • Holoblastic development; multiple conidia form from same cell
  • Conidiogenous cells usually not differentiated
order myriangiales
Order Myriangiales
  • Globose asci produced singly in locules
  • Ascostroma with indeterminate growth
  • Representatives:
    • Myriangium—associated with plants, resins or scale insects on plants; tropical to subtropical
    • Elsinoë—parasites on plant leaves and stems; tropical to subtropical
myriangium elsino
Myriangium Elsinoë

From Hanlin, 1990