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Link Layer & Physical Layer
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  1. CPE 400 / 600Computer Communication Networks Lecture 24 Link Layer & Physical Layer

  2. 5.1 Introduction and Services 5.2 Error-detection and Error-correction 5.3 Multiple Access Protocols 5.4 Link-layer Addressing 5.5 Ethernet 5.6 Link-layer Switches 5.7 Point to Point Protocol 5.8 Link Virtualization ATM , MPLS Physical Layer Data and Signals Lecture 24: Outline

  3. Point to Point Data Link Control • one sender, one receiver, one link: easier than broadcast link: • no Media Access Control • no need for explicit MAC addressing • e.g., dialup link, ISDN line • popular point-to-point DLC protocols: • PPP (point-to-point protocol) • HDLC: High level data link control (Data link used to be considered “high layer” in protocol stack!) DataLink Layer

  4. PPP Design Requirements [RFC 1557] • packet framing: encapsulation of network-layer datagram in data link frame • ability to demultiplex upwards • bit transparency: must carry any bit pattern in the data field • error detection (no correction) • connection liveness: detect, signal link failure to network layer • network layer address negotiation: endpoint can learn/configure each other’s network address Error recovery, flow control, data re-ordering all relegated to higher layers! DataLink Layer

  5. PPP Data Frame • Flag: delimiter (framing) • Address: does nothing (only one option) • Control: does nothing; in the future possible multiple control fields • Protocol: upper layer protocol to which frame delivered (eg, IP, PPP-LCP, IPCP, etc) • info: upper layer data being carried • check: cyclic redundancy check for error detection DataLink Layer

  6. PPP Data Control Protocol Before exchanging network-layer data, data link peers must • configure PPP link (max. frame length, authentication) • learn/configure network layer information • for IP: carry IP Control Protocol (IPCP) msgs (protocol field: 8021) to configure/learn IP address DataLink Layer

  7. Virtualization of networks Virtualization of resources: powerful abstraction in systems engineering: • computing examples: virtual memory, virtual devices • Virtual machines: e.g., java • IBM VM os from 1960’s/70’s • layering of abstractions: don’t sweat the details of the lower layer, only deal with lower layers abstractly DataLink Layer

  8. Internetwork layer (IP): • addressing: internetwork appears as single, uniform entity, despite underlying local network heterogeneity • network of networks The Internet: virtualizing networks Gateway: • “embed internetwork packets in local packet format or extract them” • route (at internetwork level) to next gateway gateway satellite net ARPAnet DataLink Layer

  9. Cerf & Kahn’s Internetwork Architecture What is virtualized? • two layers of addressing: internetwork and local network • new layer (IP) makes everything homogeneous at internetwork layer • underlying local network technology • cable • satellite • telephone modem • today: ATM, MPLS … “invisible” at internetwork layer. Looks like a link layer technology to IP! DataLink Layer

  10. ATM and MPLS • ATM, MPLS separate networks in their own right • different service models, addressing, routing from Internet • viewed by Internet as logical link connecting IP routers • just like dialup link is really part of separate network (telephone network) DataLink Layer

  11. Asynchronous Transfer Mode: ATM • 1990’s/00 standard for high-speed (155Mbps to 622 Mbps and higher) Broadband Integrated Service Digital Network architecture • Goal:integrated, end-end transport of carry voice, video, data • meeting timing/QoS requirements of voice, video (versus Internet best-effort model) • “next generation” telephony: technical roots in telephone world • packet-switching (fixed length packets, called “cells”) using virtual circuits DataLink Layer

  12. AAL AAL ATM ATM ATM ATM physical physical physical physical end system switch switch end system ATM architecture • adaptation layer: only at edge of ATM network • data segmentation/reassembly • roughly analagous to Internet transport layer • ATM layer: “network” layer • cell switching, routing • physical layer DataLink Layer

  13. ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) • Different versions of AAL layers, depending on ATM service class: • AAL1: for CBR (Constant Bit Rate) services, e.g. circuit emulation • AAL2: for VBR (Variable Bit Rate) services, e.g., MPEG video • AAL5: for data (eg, IP datagrams) small payload -> short cell-creation delay for digitized voice User data AAL PDU ATM cell DataLink Layer

  14. ATM Layer: Virtual Circuits • VC transport: cells carried on VC from source to dest • call setup, teardown for each call before data can flow • each packet carries VC identifier (not destination ID) • every switch on source-dest path maintain “state” for each passing connection • link,switch resources (bandwidth, buffers) may be allocated to VC: to get circuit-like perf. • Permanent VCs (PVCs) • long lasting connections • typically: “permanent” route between to IP routers • Switched VCs (SVC): • dynamically set up on per-call basis DataLink Layer

  15. ATM VCs • Advantages of ATM VC approach: • QoS performance guarantee for connection mapped to VC (bandwidth, delay, delay jitter) • Drawbacks of ATM VC approach: • Inefficient support of datagram traffic • one PVC between each source/dest pair) does not scale (N*2 connections needed) • SVC introduces call setup latency, processing overhead for short lived connections DataLink Layer

  16. ATM cell header • 5-byte ATM cell header • VCI: virtual channel ID • will change from link to link thru net • PT:Payload type (e.g. RM cell versus data cell) • CLP: Cell Loss Priority bit • CLP = 1 implies low priority cell, can be discarded if congestion • HEC: Header Error Checksum • cyclic redundancy check DataLink Layer

  17. app transport IP AAL ATM phy app transport IP Eth phy ATM phy ATM phy IP AAL ATM phy Eth phy IP-Over-ATM IP datagrams into ATM AAL5 PDUs IP addresses to ATM addresses DataLink Layer

  18. Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) • initial goal: speed up IP forwarding by using fixed length label (instead of IP address) to do forwarding • borrowing ideas from Virtual Circuit (VC) approach • but IP datagram still keeps IP address! PPP or Ethernet header IP header remainder of link-layer frame MPLS header label Exp TTL S 5 1 3 20 DataLink Layer

  19. MPLS capable routers • a.k.a. label-switched router • forwards packets to outgoing interface based only on label value (don’t inspect IP address) • MPLS forwarding table distinct from IP forwarding tables • signaling protocol needed to set up forwarding • RSVP-TE • use MPLS for traffic engineering • forwarding possible along paths that IP alone would not allow (e.g., source-specific routing) !! • must co-exist with IP-only routers DataLink Layer

  20. in out out label label dest interface 10 6 A 1 12 9 D 0 in out out label label dest interface in out out label label dest interface 8 6 A 0 6 - A 0 MPLS forwarding tables in out out label label dest interface 10 A 0 12 D 0 8 A 1 R4 R3 R6 0 0 D 1 1 R5 0 0 A R2 R1 DataLink Layer

  21. principles behind data link layer services: error detection, correction sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access link layer addressing instantiation and implementation of various link layer technologies Ethernet switched LANs PPP virtualized networks as a link layer: ATM, MPLS Chapter 5: Summary DataLink Layer

  22. Physical Layer Slides are modified from Behrouz A. Forouzan

  23. TCP/IP and OSI model

  24. Source-to-destination delivery

  25. Physical layer To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals. Physical Layer

  26. Physical Layer Chapter 3: Data and Signals Chapter 4: Digital Transmission Chapter 5: Analog Transmission

  27. 3-1 ANALOG AND DIGITAL • Data can be analog or digital • Analog data refers to information that is continuous • Analog data take on continuous values • Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range • Digital data refers to information that has discrete states • Digital data take on discrete values • Digital signals can have only a limited number of values In data communications, we commonly use periodic analog signals and nonperiodic digital signals. Physical Layer

  28. Comparison of analog and digital signals Physical Layer

  29. 3-2 PERIODIC ANALOG SIGNALS • Periodic analog signals can be classified as simple or composite. • A simple periodic analog signal, a sine wave, cannot be decomposed into simpler signals. • A composite periodic analog signal is composed of multiple sine waves. Physical Layer

  30. Signal amplitude Physical Layer

  31. Frequency Frequency is the rate of change with respect to time. • Change in a short span of time means high frequency. • Change over a long span of time means low frequency. • If a signal does not change at all, its frequency is zero • If a signal changes instantaneously, its frequency is infinite. Physical Layer

  32. Frequency and Period Frequency and period are the inverse of each other. Units of period and frequency Physical Layer

  33. Two signals with the same amplitude,but different frequencies Physical Layer

  34. Examples The power we use at home has a frequency of 60 Hz. What is the period of this sine wave ? The period of a signal is 100 ms. What is its frequency in kilohertz? Physical Layer

  35. Phase Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time 0 Three sine waves with the same amplitude and frequency,but different phases Physical Layer

  36. Example A sine wave is offset 1/6 cycle with respect to time 0. What is its phase in degrees and radians? Solution We know that 1 complete cycle is 360°. Therefore, 1/6 cycle is Physical Layer

  37. Wavelength and period Wavelength = Propagation speed x Period = Propagation speed / Frequency Physical Layer

  38. Time-domain and frequency-domain plots of a sine wave A complete sine wave in the time domain can be represented by one single spike in the frequency domain. Physical Layer

  39. Frequency Domain • The frequency domain is more compact and useful when we are dealing with more than one sine wave. • A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data communication • We need to send a composite signal, a signal made of many simple sine waves. Physical Layer

  40. Fourier analysis According to Fourier analysis, any composite signal is a combination of simple sine waves with different frequencies, amplitudes, and phases. • If the composite signal is periodic, the decomposition gives a series of signals with discrete frequencies; • If the composite signal is nonperiodic, the decomposition gives a combination of sine waves with continuous frequencies. Physical Layer

  41. A composite periodic signal Decomposition of the composite periodic signal in the time and frequency domains Physical Layer

  42. Time and frequency domains of a nonperiodic signal • A nonperiodic composite signal • It can be a signal created by a microphone or a telephone set when a word or two is pronounced. • In this case, the composite signal cannot be periodic • because that implies that we are repeating the same word or words with exactly the same tone. Physical Layer

  43. Bandwidth The bandwidth of a composite signal is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal. Physical Layer

  44. Example A nonperiodic composite signal has a bandwidth of 200 kHz, with a middle frequency of 140 kHz and peak amplitude of 20 V. The two extreme frequencies have an amplitude of 0. Draw the frequency domain of the signal. Solution The lowest frequency must be at 40 kHz and the highest at 240 kHz. Physical Layer