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Laboratory Studies on the Dental Effects of Soft Drinks and Other Beverages Sarah Story Undergraduate in Pre-Dentistry Biology Department Tennessee Technological University Cookeville, TN 38505 Date: March 1, 2006 Project Summary:

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laboratory studies on the dental effects of soft drinks and other beverages
Laboratory Studies on the Dental Effects of Soft Drinks and Other Beverages
  • Sarah Story
  • Undergraduate in Pre-Dentistry
  • Biology Department
  • Tennessee Technological University
  • Cookeville, TN 38505
  • Date: March 1, 2006
project summary
Project Summary:
  • Problem: Which beverage has the most erosive effect on dental enamel?
introduction
Introduction:
  • A high percentage of people consume soft drinks that contain sugar or artificial sweeteners, flavorings, and various additives. The popularity of sports (energy) drinks is growing and this study compares enamel dissolution in these and a variety of other beverages. Enamel from extracted specimens were selected, weighed and immersed in the selected beverages for a total of 7 days. The specimens were weighed at specific intervals throughout the immersion period with the solutions being changed daily.
  • Enamel dissolution occurred in all of the tested beverages, with far greater attack occurring in flavored and energy (sports) drinks than previously noted for water and cola drinks. Non-cola drinks, commercial lemonades, and energy sports drinks showed the most aggressive dissolution effect on the dental enamel. Reduced residence times of beverages in the mouth by salivary clearance or rinsing would appear to be beneficial. (Von Fraunhofer, 2005)
keywords
Keywords:
  • Dental Erosion
  • Dental Enamel
  • Dental Health
  • Soft Drinks
  • Sports Drinks
  • Energy Drinks
  • Non-Cola Drinks.
continued
Continued…
  • Objective: The objective of my study is to determine which beverage has the most erosive effect on dental enamel.
  • Hypothesis: In meeting my objective, I will test my hypothesis that non-cola and energy drinks will have the most erosive effect on dental enamel.
  • Null Hypothesis: In meeting my objective, I will test the hypothesis that the erosion on the enamel will be the same for all beverages tested.
methods and materials
Methods and Materials
  • The test teeth are sound (caries free) human molars and premolars that had been extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. After sterilization in an autoclave each specimen will be dried and weighed to 0.01 mg. All studies will be preformed at room temperature.
  • The test beverages and test specimens will be placed in plastic containers with 5 mL of the test beverage. The specimens will be allowed to soak in the test beverage for 60 minutes each and then allowed to dry until for 24 hours and then weighed. This process will be preformed over 24 hour intervals for a 7 day (168 hour) period. The beverages for each specimen will be replaced daily with fresh solution after each weighing. Mean percentage weight losses and weight losses per unit area will be calculated for each set if enamel specimens.
data form

Data Form

For a Two Week Period

expected benefits and results
Expected Benefits and Results
  • For this experiment, I expect that all the beverages will have a significant impact on dental erosion. I believe that the non-cola and sports drinks will have the greatest effect on enamel in the tested specimens.
  • One of the benefits that this research offers is to increase public awareness on the effects of certain beverages in regard to dental erosion. With this information people may take their dental health into better consideration.
project timeline

Project Timeline

Over the course of the semester

literature cited
Literature Cited
  • Al-Dlaigan, Y.H., L. Shaw, and A. Smith. 2001. Dental Erosion in a group of British 14-year-old school children Part II: Influence of Dietary Intake. British Dental Journal. 190: 258-261. No. 5.
  • Dawes, Colin. December 2003. What Is the Critical pH and Why Does a Tooth Dissolve in Acid. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 69: 722-724 No.11.
  • Edwards, M., S.L. Creanor, R.H. Foye, W.H. Gilmour. 1999. Buffering capacities of soft drinks: the potential influence of dental erosion. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 26: 923-927.
  • Grenby, T.H., A. Phillips, T. Desai, and M. Mistry. 1989. Laboratory studies of the dental properties of soft drinks. British Journal of Nutrition62: 451-464
  • Mathew, Tanya, Paul S. Casamassimo, and John R. Hayes. 2002. Relationship between Sports Drinks and Dental Erosion in 304 University Athletes in Columbis, Ohio, USA. Caries Research36: 281-287.
  • Oginni, Adeleke O., Elugwaraonu A. Agbakwuru, and Dennis A. Ndububa. 2005. The Prevalence of dental erosion in Nigerian patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease. BMC Oral Health5: 1.
  • Shipley, Samantha, Kelly Taylor, and William Mitchell. 2004. Identifying causes of dental erosion. General Dentistry January/February: 73-75.
  • Sirimaharaj, V., L. Brearley Messer, and M.V. Morgan. 2002. Acidic diet and dental erosion among athletes. Australian Dental Journal47:(3): 228-236.
  • Von Fraunhofer, Anthony J., Matthew M. Rogers. 2005. Effects of sports drinks and other beverages on dental enamel. General Dentistry January/February: 28-31.
  • Von Fraunhofer, Anthony J., Matthew M. Rogers. 2004. Dissolution of dental enamel in soft drinks. General Dentistry July/August: 308-312.
  • Yip, Kevin H-K., Roger J. Smales, and John. A. Kaidonis. 2003. The diagnosis and control of extrinsic acid erosion of tooth substance. General Dentistry July/August: 350-353.
proposed budget for one year
Proposed Budget for One Year

Category Salaries & Wages

  • First Year Second Year
  • Professional…………………$ 60,000 $ 60,000
  • Technician…………………..$ 35,000 $ 35,000
  • Secretarial…………………...$ 25,000 $ 25,000
  • Graduate Student(2…………$ 9,600 $ 9,600
  • Student Hourly……………...$ 8 $ 8
  • Subtotal……………………..$ 139,200 $ 139,200
  • Benefits………………..……$ 10,000 $ 10,000
  • Travel……………………… $ 500 $ 500
  • Non-Expendables…………. $ 1,000 $ 1,000
  • Expendables………………...$ 1,000 $ 1,000
  • Computer…………………...$ 1,000 $ 1,000
  • Supplies & Expenses………..$ 2,000 $ 2,000
  • Copying & Telephone...……. $ 500 $ 500
  • Tuition & Fees……………... $ 200 $ 200
  • Subtotal……………………. $ 16,200 $ 16,200
  • Total Direct Costs………… $139,200 $ 139,200
  • Indirect Costs……………... $ 16,200 $ 16,200
  • Total Costs…………………$ 155,400 $ 155,400