Introduction to information technology 2 nd edition turban rainer potter 2003 john wiley sons inc
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Introduction to Information Technology 2 nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7: The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets Prepared by: Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D. University of Northern Iowa Lecture Preview In this lecture, we will study:

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Introduction to information technology 2 nd edition turban rainer potter 2003 john wiley sons inc l.jpg

Introductionto Information Technology2nd EditionTurban, Rainer & Potter© 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 7:

The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

Prepared by:

Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D.

University of Northern Iowa

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Lecture Preview

  • In this lecture, we will study:

    • The evolution, operations, and services of the Internet

    • The segment of the Internet called the World Wide Web

    • Organizational applications of Internet technology (intranets and extranets)

    • Specialized Internet applications

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What is the Internet?

  • The largest computer network in the world (a network of networks)

  • Information exchange is seamless using open, non-proprietary standards and protocols, within interconnected networks

  • A true democratic communications forum producing a democratization of information

  • Spirit of information sharing and open access underlies the Internet.

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The Internet Today

  • The Internet is international, with users on all continents

  • The cost of personal computers and Internet connections are prohibitively high for most of the world’s population

  • Political, cultural, and regulatory barriers have slowed the rate of Internet adoption internationally

  • The vast majority of sites are in English

  • The vast majority of content is generated in the United States

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The Infrastructure of the Internet

  • Commercial communications companies are primary providers of the physical network backbone of the Internet

  • The U.S. government contributes some funds to essential administrative processes

  • The Internet infrastructure is supplied by network service providers

  • Connections between and flow of information between backbone providers has been open and free of charge

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Future Internet Initiatives

  • Internet2

    • A collaboration among more than 180 U.S. universities to develop leading-edge networking and advanced applications for learning and research.

    • A group of very high bandwidth networks on the Internet.

    • Partnership between universities, industry, and government.

  • Next Generation Internet (NGI)

    • Federal government led initiative to advance Internet technology and applications.

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The Operation of the Internet

  • Packets of information flow between machines governed by common rules (protocols):

    • Internet protocol (IP)

    • Transport control protocol (TCP)

  • Internet is a packet-switching network

    • Messages are decomposed into packets, containing part of the message, plus information on the sending and receiving machines and how the packet relates to the other packets

    • Packets travel independently and possibly on different routes through the Internet

    • Packets are reassembled into the message at the receiving machine.

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The Operation of the Internet (continued)

  • Each computer on the Internet is identified by an IP address

  • Most computers also have domain names

  • Network Solutions, Inc. had a monopoly on domain name registration until 1999.

  • Today, some 82 companies can register domain names.

  • Cybersquatting – purchase of domain name with intent to resell it. Legislative action resulted in Nov. 2000

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The Operation of the Internet (continued)

  • New top-level domain zones: In November 2000, the first addition of a global top-level domains to the Internet since the 1980s occurred.

    • .aero (for the air-transport industry)

    • .biz (for businesses)

    • .coop (for cooperatives)

    • .museum (for museums)

    • .name (for individuals)

    • .pro (for professions).

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The Operation of the Internet (continued)

  • Accessing the Internet

    • Connect via LAN Server

    • Connect via Serial Line Internet Protocol/Point Protocol (SLIP/PPP)

    • Connect via an Online Service (AOL, MSN)

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E-mail – electronic messaging

USENET newsgroups – forums that collect groups of messages from users based on common themes

LISTSERV – distributes email messages to all subscribers

Chatting – live, interactive, written conversations based on topic groups

Instant messaging – instant text messaging between Internet users

Telnet – user on one computer doing work on another computer

Internet telephony – conducting voice conversations over the Internet

Internet fax – real time document transmittal

Streaming audio and video

Internet Services - Communications

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File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – electronic transfer of files from one computer to another

Archie – tools to enable searching for files at FTP sites

Gophers – menu-driven information search tool

Veronica – text search through Gopher sites

Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) – database search tool

Internet Services – Information Retrieval

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Delivery of software components via a web site rather than through traditional means (disks, CDs)

.NET – Microsoft’s new platform for XML Web services. Integrates web sites and programs to deliver applications.

Internet Services – Web Services

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Internet Services – World Wide Web through traditional means (disks, CDs)

  • An application that uses the Internet transport functions

  • A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture

  • Based on HTML -standard hypertext language used in Web

  • Handles text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound

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The World Wide Web through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Home Page - a text and graphical screen display; first, introductory page in a web site

  • Web Site - all the pages of a company or individual

  • Hyperlinks - ways to link and navigate around the pages on a web site

  • Webmaster - the person in charge of a Web site

  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - points to the address of a specific resource on the Web

  • Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) - communications standard used to transfer pages across the WWW portion of the Internet

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The World Wide Web through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Browsers – graphicalsoftware that enables WWW users to request and view web documents

  • Offline Browsers – software that retrieves pages from Web sites automatically at predetermined times

  • Search Engines - programs that return a list of Web sites or pages that match some user-selected criteria

  • Metasearch Engines - automatically enter search queries into a number of other search engines and return the results

  • To be included in a search engine’s database

    • Web Crawlers

    • Registration

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The World Wide Web through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Pull Technology - requires web user to actively request information; traditional web mechanism

  • Push Technology - automatically supplies desirable information to users

    • provides timely, prioritized distribution of information over a corporate network in the workplace

    • enhances traditional Web advertising in the consumer market

    • used for software delivery and updates

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The World Wide Web through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Information Filters – automated methods of sorting/screening WWW content

  • Clipping Services – automated retrieval of articles and news items from publications

  • Personalized Web Services – ability to generate personalized Web content

  • Web Authoring(for page and site design)

    • Standard HTML is the common denominator

    • CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) and Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the common format of graphics files

    • Browsers can be extended through software plug-ins

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Internet Challenges through traditional means (disks, CDs)

  • New Technologies

    • Adopted by vendors more rapidly than users and customers can implement them

    • Web developers cannot assume that users can run their innovations successfully

  • Internet Regulation

    • Technical organizations (e.g., World Wide Web Consortium) develop standards governing the Internet’s functionality

    • These organizations are not formally charged in any legal or operational sense with responsibility for the Internet

    • How to control controversial content on the Web?

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Internet Challenges through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Internet Expansion

    • Tremendous Internet traffic growth has strained some elements of the network

      • Slower retrieval times

      • Unreliable data transmission

      • Denial of service by overloaded servers

    • Approaches to overcoming this congestion include

      • Improved hardware technology

      • Improved Web management software

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Internet Challenges through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Internet Privacy - Web sites collect information with and without consumers’ knowledge

    • Cookie - small data file placed on users’ hard drives when a site is first visited. Collects data on pages visited and content viewed.

    • Three potential approaches to the privacy issue

      • Government lets groups develop voluntary privacy standards; does not take any action now unless real problems arise

      • Government recommends privacy standards for the Internet; does not pass laws at this time

      • Government passes laws now for how personal information can be collected and used on the Internet

    • Financial transaction security also a concern

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Intranets through traditional means (disks, CDs)

  • A private network that uses Internet software and TCP/IP protocols

    • Provide employees with easy access to corporate information

    • Used to deploy corporate applications

      • Examples – policies and procedures manuals; human resource forms; product catalogs

    • Security is a concern

      • Security measures include – public key security, encryption, digital certificates, firewalls

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Extranets through traditional means (disks, CDs)

  • An extension of an intranet to selected outside business partners, such as suppliers, distributors, and key customers

    • Provide business partners with easy access to corporate information and easy collaboration

  • Security

    • Critical to prevent unwanted entry into internal systems

    • Virtual private networks (VPNs) are often used to add security to Internet communication

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Extranets through traditional means (disks, CDs)(continued)

  • Extranet configurations

    • One company sets up a Extranet for its dealers, customers, or suppliers

    • Companies within an industry set up a collaborative Extranet for mutual benefit

    • Several companies collaborate over an Extranet for joint venture

  • Benefits include –

    • Lower communication costs; better communication; improved order entry and customer service; improvement in business effectiveness

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Other Web-based Applications through traditional means (disks, CDs)

  • Enterprise Information Portals

    • Users have single point of access to internal and external stored information

  • Mobile Internet

    • Use of wireless communication telecommunication devices to access Web-based applications

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Lecture Summary through traditional means (disks, CDs)

  • Internet is a network of network

  • Internet provides communication and information retrieval services, as well as the World Wide Web

  • The World Wide Web enables a huge variety of applications for businesses, including intranets and extranets

  • Many challenges exist when using the WWW, including congestion, privacy, and security