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Introduction to Information Technology 2 nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 7: The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets Prepared by: Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D. University of Northern Iowa Lecture Preview In this lecture, we will study:

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introduction to information technology 2 nd edition turban rainer potter 2003 john wiley sons inc

Introductionto Information Technology2nd EditionTurban, Rainer & Potter© 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 7:

The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets

Prepared by:

Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D.

University of Northern Iowa

lecture preview
Lecture Preview
  • In this lecture, we will study:
    • The evolution, operations, and services of the Internet
    • The segment of the Internet called the World Wide Web
    • Organizational applications of Internet technology (intranets and extranets)
    • Specialized Internet applications
what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • The largest computer network in the world (a network of networks)
  • Information exchange is seamless using open, non-proprietary standards and protocols, within interconnected networks
  • A true democratic communications forum producing a democratization of information
  • Spirit of information sharing and open access underlies the Internet.
the internet today
The Internet Today
  • The Internet is international, with users on all continents
  • The cost of personal computers and Internet connections are prohibitively high for most of the world’s population
  • Political, cultural, and regulatory barriers have slowed the rate of Internet adoption internationally
  • The vast majority of sites are in English
  • The vast majority of content is generated in the United States
the infrastructure of the internet
The Infrastructure of the Internet
  • Commercial communications companies are primary providers of the physical network backbone of the Internet
  • The U.S. government contributes some funds to essential administrative processes
  • The Internet infrastructure is supplied by network service providers
  • Connections between and flow of information between backbone providers has been open and free of charge

Future Internet Initiatives

  • Internet2
    • A collaboration among more than 180 U.S. universities to develop leading-edge networking and advanced applications for learning and research.
    • A group of very high bandwidth networks on the Internet.
    • Partnership between universities, industry, and government.
  • Next Generation Internet (NGI)
    • Federal government led initiative to advance Internet technology and applications.
the operation of the internet
The Operation of the Internet
  • Packets of information flow between machines governed by common rules (protocols):
    • Internet protocol (IP)
    • Transport control protocol (TCP)
  • Internet is a packet-switching network
    • Messages are decomposed into packets, containing part of the message, plus information on the sending and receiving machines and how the packet relates to the other packets
    • Packets travel independently and possibly on different routes through the Internet
    • Packets are reassembled into the message at the receiving machine.
the operation of the internet continued
The Operation of the Internet (continued)
  • Each computer on the Internet is identified by an IP address
  • Most computers also have domain names
  • Network Solutions, Inc. had a monopoly on domain name registration until 1999.
  • Today, some 82 companies can register domain names.
  • Cybersquatting – purchase of domain name with intent to resell it. Legislative action resulted in Nov. 2000
the operation of the internet continued9
The Operation of the Internet (continued)
  • New top-level domain zones: In November 2000, the first addition of a global top-level domains to the Internet since the 1980s occurred.
    • .aero (for the air-transport industry)
    • .biz (for businesses)
    • .coop (for cooperatives)
    • .museum (for museums)
    • .name (for individuals)
    • .pro (for professions).
the operation of the internet continued10
The Operation of the Internet (continued)
  • Accessing the Internet
    • Connect via LAN Server
    • Connect via Serial Line Internet Protocol/Point Protocol (SLIP/PPP)
    • Connect via an Online Service (AOL, MSN)
internet services communications
E-mail – electronic messaging

USENET newsgroups – forums that collect groups of messages from users based on common themes

LISTSERV – distributes email messages to all subscribers

Chatting – live, interactive, written conversations based on topic groups

Instant messaging – instant text messaging between Internet users

Telnet – user on one computer doing work on another computer

Internet telephony – conducting voice conversations over the Internet

Internet fax – real time document transmittal

Streaming audio and video

Internet Services - Communications
internet services information retrieval
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – electronic transfer of files from one computer to another

Archie – tools to enable searching for files at FTP sites

Gophers – menu-driven information search tool

Veronica – text search through Gopher sites

Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) – database search tool

Internet Services – Information Retrieval
internet services web services
Delivery of software components via a web site rather than through traditional means (disks, CDs)

.NET – Microsoft’s new platform for XML Web services. Integrates web sites and programs to deliver applications.

Internet Services – Web Services
internet services world wide web
Internet Services – World Wide Web
  • An application that uses the Internet transport functions
  • A system with universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture
  • Based on HTML -standard hypertext language used in Web
  • Handles text, hypermedia, graphics, and sound
the world wide web continued
The World Wide Web(continued)
  • Home Page - a text and graphical screen display; first, introductory page in a web site
  • Web Site - all the pages of a company or individual
  • Hyperlinks - ways to link and navigate around the pages on a web site
  • Webmaster - the person in charge of a Web site
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - points to the address of a specific resource on the Web
  • Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) - communications standard used to transfer pages across the WWW portion of the Internet
the world wide web continued16
The World Wide Web (continued)
  • Browsers – graphicalsoftware that enables WWW users to request and view web documents
  • Offline Browsers – software that retrieves pages from Web sites automatically at predetermined times
  • Search Engines - programs that return a list of Web sites or pages that match some user-selected criteria
  • Metasearch Engines - automatically enter search queries into a number of other search engines and return the results
  • To be included in a search engine’s database
    • Web Crawlers
    • Registration
the world wide web continued17
The World Wide Web (continued)
  • Pull Technology - requires web user to actively request information; traditional web mechanism
  • Push Technology - automatically supplies desirable information to users
    • provides timely, prioritized distribution of information over a corporate network in the workplace
    • enhances traditional Web advertising in the consumer market
    • used for software delivery and updates
the world wide web continued18
The World Wide Web (continued)
  • Information Filters – automated methods of sorting/screening WWW content
  • Clipping Services – automated retrieval of articles and news items from publications
  • Personalized Web Services – ability to generate personalized Web content
  • Web Authoring(for page and site design)
    • Standard HTML is the common denominator
    • CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) and Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the common format of graphics files
    • Browsers can be extended through software plug-ins
internet challenges
Internet Challenges
  • New Technologies
    • Adopted by vendors more rapidly than users and customers can implement them
    • Web developers cannot assume that users can run their innovations successfully
  • Internet Regulation
    • Technical organizations (e.g., World Wide Web Consortium) develop standards governing the Internet’s functionality
    • These organizations are not formally charged in any legal or operational sense with responsibility for the Internet
    • How to control controversial content on the Web?
internet challenges continued
Internet Challenges (continued)
  • Internet Expansion
    • Tremendous Internet traffic growth has strained some elements of the network
      • Slower retrieval times
      • Unreliable data transmission
      • Denial of service by overloaded servers
    • Approaches to overcoming this congestion include
      • Improved hardware technology
      • Improved Web management software
internet challenges continued21
Internet Challenges(continued)
  • Internet Privacy - Web sites collect information with and without consumers’ knowledge
    • Cookie - small data file placed on users’ hard drives when a site is first visited. Collects data on pages visited and content viewed.
    • Three potential approaches to the privacy issue
      • Government lets groups develop voluntary privacy standards; does not take any action now unless real problems arise
      • Government recommends privacy standards for the Internet; does not pass laws at this time
      • Government passes laws now for how personal information can be collected and used on the Internet
    • Financial transaction security also a concern
  • A private network that uses Internet software and TCP/IP protocols
    • Provide employees with easy access to corporate information
    • Used to deploy corporate applications
      • Examples – policies and procedures manuals; human resource forms; product catalogs
    • Security is a concern
      • Security measures include – public key security, encryption, digital certificates, firewalls
  • An extension of an intranet to selected outside business partners, such as suppliers, distributors, and key customers
    • Provide business partners with easy access to corporate information and easy collaboration
  • Security
    • Critical to prevent unwanted entry into internal systems
    • Virtual private networks (VPNs) are often used to add security to Internet communication
extranets continued
Extranets (continued)
  • Extranet configurations
    • One company sets up a Extranet for its dealers, customers, or suppliers
    • Companies within an industry set up a collaborative Extranet for mutual benefit
    • Several companies collaborate over an Extranet for joint venture
  • Benefits include –
    • Lower communication costs; better communication; improved order entry and customer service; improvement in business effectiveness
other web based applications
Other Web-based Applications
  • Enterprise Information Portals
    • Users have single point of access to internal and external stored information
  • Mobile Internet
    • Use of wireless communication telecommunication devices to access Web-based applications
lecture summary
Lecture Summary
  • Internet is a network of network
  • Internet provides communication and information retrieval services, as well as the World Wide Web
  • The World Wide Web enables a huge variety of applications for businesses, including intranets and extranets
  • Many challenges exist when using the WWW, including congestion, privacy, and security