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Intrapartal Nursing Care: Labor and Birth Linda L. Franco RN MSN NE-BC Green = must know Red = Important to know Blue PowerPoint Presentation
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Intrapartal Nursing Care: Labor and Birth Linda L. Franco RN MSN NE-BC Green = must know Red = Important to know Blue - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Intrapartal Nursing Care: Labor and Birth Linda L. Franco RN MSN NE-BC Green = must know Red = Important to know Blue = history. Factors Important to Birth. Birth Passage Baby Relationship Between the Passage and the Baby Physiologic Forces of Labor Psychosocial Considerations.

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Intrapartal Nursing Care: Labor and Birth Linda L. Franco RN MSN NE-BCGreen = must knowRed = Important to knowBlue = history
factors important to birth
Factors Important to Birth
  • Birth Passage
  • Baby
  • Relationship Between the Passage and the Baby
  • Physiologic Forces of Labor
  • Psychosocial Considerations
birth passage
Birth Passage
  • Consists of bony pelvis and soft tissues
  • Bony Pelvis
    • False pelvis above linea terminalis
    • True pelvis below linea terminalis
  • Types of pelvis
    • Gynecoid – female, most common
    • Android – male, usually not adequate
    • Anthropoid – narrow from side to side, usually adequate
    • Platypelloid – narrow from back to back, usually not adequate
fetal head
Fetal Head
  • Composed of bony parts that can assist or hinder childbirth
  • Bones involved in birth not fused
    • 2 frontal bones
    • 2 parietal bones
    • occipital bones
  • Sutures – membranous spaces between cranial bones
fontanelles
Fontanelles
  • Intersections of the cranial sutures
  • Used in identifying position of fetal head and assessing newborn after birth
    • Anterior Fontanelle, diamond shaped, closes by 18 months
    • Posterior Fontanelle, triangle shaped, closes by 2–3 months
landmarks of fetal skull
Landmarks of Fetal Skull
  • Mentum – fetal chin
  • Sinciput – brow
  • Bregma – anterior fontanelle
  • Vertex – between anterior and posterior fontanelles
  • Occiput – occipital bone
diameters
Diameters
  • Biparietal – major transverse diameter, average 9.25 cm
  • Anterior-Posterior – varies with how much head is flexed, most favorable when head is fully flexed
  • Fetal Attitude – position of fetus
  • Fetal Lie – position of fetus compared to mother
    • Longitudinal
    • Transverse
fetal presentation
Fetal Presentation
  • Cephalic (most common, what we want, occurs 97% of the time)
    • Vertex – occiput is presenting part (most common)
    • Military – head is in neutral position, top of head is presenting part
    • Brow – head partially extended, brow is presenting part (tough on baby’s neck, could have neck or shoulder injuries during delivery)
    • Face – head hyperextended, face is presenting part
fetal presentations con
Fetal Presentations con.
  • Breech (occur in 3-4% of all births)
    • Complete – both knees are flexed, buttocks and feet present. Kind of sitting indian style
    • Frank – buttocks presents to pelvis, legs are usually up in front of the baby’s face
    • Footling – one or both feet present to pelvis
  • Shoulder Presentation
    • Aka Transverse Lie, occurs in 0.3% of all births, shoulder, arm, back, abd, or side is presenting. In this case a C-section will be performed
transverse lie
Transverse Lie
  • External Version
    • Where they have the mom lay on her back in the exam room and the dr tries to make the baby move just by pushing it and turning the baby. Usually doesn’t work
  • Cesarean Section
    • They will usually do this on these babies
  • Assess FHR
    • To make sure the baby isn’t in distress
engagement
Engagement
  • When largest diameter of presenting part reaches or passes through pelvic inlet
    • If the baby is engaged it’s starting to drop down… the top part of the pelvis is adequate, but they may still have to have a c section
    • Primigravida – 2 weeks before term
    • Multigravida – several weeks or at onset of labor
station
Station
  • Relationship of presenting part to an imaginary line drawn at the ischal spines (ischial spines mark the narrowest part thru which a baby must pass)
    • Zero station at level of ischial spines
    • Negative numbers above ischial spines
      • Baby hasn’t passed them yet
    • Positive numbers below ischial spines
      • After they’ve reached the spines and the baby’s head is descending
fetal position
Fetal Position
  • Relationship of the landmark on the presenting part to the maternal pelvis
    • Left (L) or Right (R)
    • Vertex – Occiput (O) (this is the one we want)
    • Face – Mentum (M)
    • Breech – Sacrum (S)
    • Shoulder – Acromion process (A)
    • Anterior(A), Posterior (P), or Transverse (T)
    • Could say LOP for left occiput posterior
forces of labor
Forces of Labor
  • Primary - uterine contractions
    • Increment – building up to the contraction, longest phase
    • Decrement – the decline or letting up of the contraction
    • Frequency – time between the beginning of one to the beginning of the next
    • Intensity – refers to the strength of the contraction at the peak. Measured by palpating the fundus something or other
      • mild, moderate, and strong
    • Duration – from the beginning of a contraction to the end of that contraction
psychosocial considerations
Psychosocial Considerations
  • New role transition
  • Self expectations
  • Coping mechanisms
  • Support systems
  • Preparation for childbirth
  • Cultural influences
  • Fear
  • Enhancing birth experience
physiology of labor
Physiology of Labor
  • Causes
    • Hormones
      • Progesterone – relaxes smooth muscle tissue
      • Estrogen – promotes uterine contractions, also helps soften connective tissue which leads to the opening of the cervix
      • Oxytocin
      • Prostaglandins
      • Fetal Cortisol
      • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
    • Uterine Distention
    • Myometrial Activity
    • Intraabdominal
premonitory signs of labor
Premonitory Signs of Labor
  • Lightening – when the fetus begins to setting into the pelvic inlet, the uterus moves downward and the fundus no longer presses on the diaphragm, the mom can breathe easier. Also causes leg cramps, increased pelvic pressure and increased urine frequency, and increases venous stasis which causes swelling of their lower extremities. Increased vaginal secretions resulting from congestion of the vaginal mucosa
  • Braxton Hicks – irregular intermittent contractions that occur thru ought pregnancy. Can be uncomfortable and exhausting to the mom
  • Cervical changes – at beginning of pregnancy it is firm, and over time it stretches and dilates. The softening of the cervix is called ripening
  • Bloody show – the mucus plug is expelled and the result of that is small amount of blood loss from the exposed cervical capillaries. That blood tinged secretion is called the bloody show. Usually a sign that labor will begin in 24-48 hours
  • Rupture of Membranes – when the membranes do rupture the ambiotic fluid may be expelled in large amounts… when you’re water breaks. Sign of impending labor, once this happens the woman can’t get up and walk around
  • Sudden burst of energy – very common, approx 24-48 hours before labor, no one really knows why they have this. May experience “nesting” at this time.
  • Other vague signs – weight loss of 1-3 lbs may occur, diarrhea, indigestion, N/V may occur before labor, cause is unknown
true and false labor
True and False Labor
  • True
    • Regular contractions
    • Cervical changes
    • Contractions start in back and radiate around to abdomen
    • Pain not relieved with activity
  • False
    • Irregular contractions
    • No cervical changes
    • Contractions primarily in abdomen
    • Pain may be relieved with activity
stages of labor
Stages of Labor
  • Stage One – Effacement and Dilatation
    • Latent Phase – 0-3 cm; able to cope, talkative, high excitement, uterine contractions become established. Effacement begins, but little or no fetal descent
    • Active Phase – 4-7 cm; sense of helplessness, begins to fear loss of control, pain level is much worse at this level and you can see them kind of getting to the end of their rope. Contractions are usually 2-3 mins apart and last about 60 seconds and very strong in intensity
    • Transition Phase – 8-10 cm; significant anxiety, fears being left alone, feels she may be torn apart, contractions are 1.5-2 mins with duration of 60-90 seconds. As it approaches 10 there is increased pressure and a desire to “bear down” and maybe increase in bloody show. Sometimes these moms get the urge to push and we have to tell them not to because it’s too early. If they push and bear down it can cause the cervix to swell which slows the process because we have to wait for that swelling to go away to birth the baby
stage two maternal pushing
Stage Two – Maternal Pushing
  • Begins with complete cervical dilation and ends with the birth of the baby
  • Maternal urge to push
  • May feel relieved that birth is imminent
  • Apologetic
  • Primagravidas – 2-3 hours
  • Multigravidas – 5-30 mins
cardinal movements of fetal head
Cardinal Movements of Fetal Head
  • Descent – occurs because of 1 pressure of amniotic fluid, 2 direct pressure of the uterine fundus, 3 contractions of the abd muscles, 4 straightening of the fetal body
  • Flexion- flexion of the baby’s head because of resistance from the soft tissue of the pelvis, the pelvis floor, and the cervix
  • Internal Rotation – the fetal head must rotate with the diameter of the pelvic cavity which is widest in the anterior posterior diameter
  • Extension – the resistance of the pelvic floor and the mechanical movement of the vulva opening anteriorly and forward with extension of the fetal head as it passes under the symphysis pubis
  • Restitution – the shoulders of the fetus enter the pelvis inlet something or other. Because of this rotation the pelvis the neck becomes twisted. Basically the baby’s head becomes twisted around
  • External Rotation – as the shoulders rotate the head turns further to one side
  • Expulsion – the shoulder moves under the symphysis pubis.
  • On pg 391 and she’s reading it word for word
stage three delivery of placenta
Stage Three – Delivery of Placenta

Placental Separation

Globular shaped uterus

Rise in fundus in abdomen

Sudden gush of blood

Further protrusion of the umbilical cord

Signs usually start after about 5 mins after the birth of the baby. When these signs start appearing the woman may feel the need to bear down again. Firm pressure may be applied to the fundus and gentle tugging on the cord to get it out

Placental Delivery

Maternal pushing can assist delivery

Retained if > 30 minutes

Shiny Schultze – inside out

Dirty Duncan – outer edge to inside

If the placenta or a piece of it is still stuck inside the mom there will be tons of bleeding

*placenta is only made correctly for about 40 weeks and after that it’s kind of shitty

stage four recovery
Stage Four - Recovery
  • Recovery 1-4 hours
  • Hemodynamic changes
    • In the mom and in the baby, but really looking at mom…
  • Blood loss of 250 – 500 ml’s
  • Decreased blood pressure
    • Along with increase in pulse pressure and moderate tachycardia, because of the blood loss mentioned above
  • Fundus between symphysis and umbilicus
  • Fatigued, thirsty and hungry
  • Bladder hypotonic
    • Check mom for bladder fullness if they aren’t able to void
maternal systemic response to labor
Maternal Systemic Response to Labor
  • Cardiovascular
    • Stressed by Uterine Contractions
      • Pain, anxiety, apprehension
    • Increased cardiac output
      • 300-500ml blood forced back into maternal circulation with each contraction
      • BP increases with uterine contractions
    • Position lowers cardiac output
      • Supine  cardiac output
      • Left lateral  BP
maternal response con
Maternal Response con.
  • Respiratory
    • Oxygen demand increases
    • Hyperventilation may occur
      • Because of stress and pushing and what not
      • Fall in pH O2 and respiratory alkalosis may occur
    • Pushing increases lactate levels
    • S/S of hyperventilation
      • Tingling/numbness in nose, lips, fingers or toes, might have them breathe into a paper bag
  • Renal system
    •  maternal renin, plasma renin, and angiotensiogen – important in uteroplacental blood flow
    • Trauma to bladder
    • Blood and lymph drainage impaired from presenting part
maternal response con30
Maternal Response con.
  • GI system
    • Gastric motility and absorption 
    • Emptying time is  causing  risk of aspiration
    • Glucose levels  causing  insulin levels
    • More food in their stomach which sometimes comes up…
  • Immune system
    • WBC 25 – 30,000 stress response
slide31
Pain
  • Causes of pain
    • Dilatation of cervix
    • Hypoxia of uterine muscle
      • This is what causes pain. When they are contracting as hard as they can contract they’re not getting oxygen which will cause pain
    • Stretching of lower uterine segment
    • Pressure on adjacent structures
    • Distention of vagina
    • Uterine contractions
    • Delivery of placenta
    • Episiotomy repair
factors affecting response to pain
Factors Affecting Response to Pain
  • Preparation for birth – childbirth classes
  • Respond by what is acceptable to culture
    • Some cultures it’s ok for woman to go nuts and yell, some cultures they’re supposed to be stoic and not express pain. Sign of weakness or whatever, but this doesn’t mean that they aren’t feeling pain.
  • Fatigue and sleep deprivation
    • Fatigued woman has less energy and it will be harder to get them to focus on what we need them to do.
  • Previous experience
  • Anxiety
fetal response to labor
Fetal Response to Labor
  • Heartrate changes
    • Early decelerations
      •  intracranial pressure causes vagal response
      • During labor
    • Late decelerations
      •  uteroplacental blood flow
    • Variable decelerations
      • Cord compression
  • Acid-Base Status in Labor
    • As uterine contractions increase, pH decreases slowly in response to hypoxia
    • Blood flow is decreased to the baby during contractions
  • Hemodynamic changes
    • Fetal BP and placental reserves protective mechanism during anoxic periods