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Integumentary System. CHAPTER 5. Integumentary System. Skin Integument or cutaneous membrane Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous layer Accessory structures Hair Nails Glands. Layers and Structures of the Skin. Skin Lesions. Abrasion

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Integumentary System

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integumentary system2
Integumentary System
  • Skin
    • Integument or cutaneous membrane
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous layer
  • Accessory structures
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Glands
skin lesions
Skin Lesions
  • Abrasion
    • Scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area
      • Example: carpet burn
  • Abscess
    • Localized collection of pus in any body part that results from invasion of pus-forming bacteria
      • Example: pustule = small abscess
skin lesions5
Skin Lesions
  • Bedsore
    • Ulcer in skin over a bony prominence
    • Also known as pressure ulcer
      • Example: decubitus ulcer
  • Blister
    • Small, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid
    • Also known as a vesicle
skin lesions6
Skin Lesions
  • Bulla
    • Large blister
  • Carbuncle
    • Circumscribed inflammation of skin and deeper tissues; contains pus
  • Comedo
    • Typical lesion of acne vulgaris
      • Example: whitehead = closed comedo
      • Example: blackhead = open comedo
skin lesions7
Skin Lesions
  • Cyst
    • Closed sac or pouch in or within the skin; contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material
      • Example: hydrocele = fluid-filled cyst
      • Example: sebaceous cyst = solid-filled cyst
skin lesions8
Skin Lesions
  • Fissure
    • Cracklike sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane
      • Example: anal fissure
  • Fistula
    • Abnormal passageway between two tubular organs; or from an organ to the body surface
      • Example: recto-vaginal fistula
skin lesions9
Skin Lesions
  • Hives
    • Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions on skin; paler in center than surrounding edges
    • Also called wheals
      • Example: mosquito bite
  • Laceration
    • Tear in skin; torn, jagged wound
skin lesions10
Skin Lesions
  • Macule
    • Small flat, discoloration of the skin; neither raised nor depressed
      • Example: bruises, freckles
  • Nodule
    • Small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin
skin lesions11
Skin Lesions
  • Papule
    • Small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin
    • Example: pimple, wart, elevated mole
  • Polyp
    • Small, stalklike growth, protruding upward or outward from membrane surface
    • Example: nasal polyp
skin lesions12
Skin Lesions
  • Pustule
    • Small elevation of skin filled with pus
      • Example: small abscess on the skin
  • Scales
    • Thin flakes of hardened epithelium that are shed from the epidermis
  • Ulcer
    • Circumscribed, open sore or lesion of skin, accompanied by inflammation
      • Example: decubitus ulcer
skin lesions13
Skin Lesions
  • Vesicle
    • Small, thin-walled, lesion containing clear fluid
      • Example: blister
  • Wheal
    • Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin
    • Paler in center than surrounding edges
      • Example: hives
pathological conditions


Integumentary System

acne vulgaris
Acne Vulgaris
  • Pronounced
    • (ACK-nee-vul-GAY-ris)
  • Defined
    • Common inflammatory disorder seen on face, chest, back, and neck
    • Appears as papules, pustules, and comedos
  • Pronounced
    • (AL-bin-izm)
  • Defined
    • Condition characterized by absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
  • Defined
    • Tissue injury produced by flame, heat, chemicals, radiation, electricity, or gases
    • Extent of damage determined by:
      • Mode and duration of exposure
      • Thermal intensity or temperature
      • Anatomic site of the burn
  • First-degree or superficial burns
    • Example: sunburn
  • Second-degree or partial-thickness burns
    • Example: flash contact with hot objects
  • Third-degree or full-thickness burns
    • Example: deep burns from a fire
  • Pronounced
    • (CAL-us)
  • Defined
    • Common, usually painless thickening of the epidermis at sites of external pressure or friction, such as weight-bearing areas of the feet and on the palmar surface of the hands
      • Also known as a callosity
carcinoma basal cell
Carcinoma, Basal Cell
  • Pronounced
    • (car-sih-NOH-mah BAY-sal sell)
  • Defined
    • Most common malignant tumor of epithelial tissue, occurring most often on areas of skin that are exposed to the sun
      • Presents as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as the tumor grows
carcinoma squamous cell
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • Pronounced
    • (car-sih-NOH-mah SKWAY-mus sell )
  • Defined
    • Malignancy of the squamous, or scalelike, cells of the epithelial tissue
    • Much faster growing than basal cell carcinoma
    • Greater potential for metastasis if not treated
carcinoma squamous cell22
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • Frequent sites on sun-exposed areas
    • Top of nose
    • Forehead
    • Margin of external ear
    • Back of hands
    • Lower lip
  • Pronounced
    • (der-mah-TYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • Inflammation of skin, seen in several different forms
    • Acute or chronic
    • Contact or seborrheic
  • Pronounced
    • (EK-zeh-mah)
  • Defined
    • Acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and itching
exanthematous viral diseases
Exanthematous Viral Diseases
  • Pronounced
    • (eks-an-THEM-ah-tus viral diseases)
  • Defined
    • Skin eruption or rash accompanied by inflammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infectious viral disease
exanthematous viral diseases26
Exanthematous Viral Diseases
  • Examples:
    • Rubella= German Measles= 3 day measles
    • Roseola Infantum
    • Rubeola= Red Measles= 7-10 day measles
    • Erythema Infectiosum= Fifth disease
  • Pronounced
    • (GANG-green)
  • Defined
    • Tissue death due to loss of adequate blood supply, invasion of bacteria, subsequent decay with foul odor
herpes zoster
Herpes Zoster
  • Pronounced
    • (HER-peez ZOS-ter)
  • Defined
    • Acute viral infection, characterized by painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin that follow along nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves
    • Highest incidence in adults over 50
herpes zoster29
Herpes Zoster

Image courtesy of Robert A. Silverman,

M.D., Pediatric Dermatology,

Georgetown University

  • Pronounced
    • (Im-peh-TYE-goh)
  • Defined
    • Contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria
      • Usually forming on the face
kaposi s sarcoma
Kaposi’s Sarcoma
  • Pronounced
    • (CAP-oh-seez sar-KOH-ma)
  • Defined
    • Rare malignant lesions beginning as soft purple-brown nodules or plaques on the feet
    • Gradually spreads throughout skin
    • Increased incidence in men with AIDS
  • Pronounced
    • (KEE-loyd)
  • Defined
    • Enlarged, irregularly shaped, elevated scar that forms due to the presence of large amounts of collagen during formation of a scar
  • Pronounced
    • (kair-ah-TOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Skin condition in which there is a thickening and overgrowth of the cornified epithelium
seborrheic keratosis
Seborrheic Keratosis
  • Pronounced
    • (seb-oh-REE-ik kair-ah-TOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Brown or waxy yellow wart-like lesions that are loosely attached to the skin
    • Also known as senile warts
actinic keratosis
Actinic Keratosis
  • Pronounced
    • (ak-TIN-ic kair-ah-TOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Premalignant, gray or red-to-brown, hardened lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight
    • Also known as solar keratosis
  • Pronounced
    • (loo-koh-PLAY-kee-ah)
  • Defined
    • White, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane
      • In mouth, vulva, or penis
malignant melanoma
Malignant Melanoma
  • Pronounced
    • (mah-LIG-nant mel-ah-NOH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment
    • Darkly pigmented tumor with irregular surfaces and borders; variable colors
abcds of malignant melanomas
ABCDs of Malignant Melanomas
  • Asymmetry
  • Borders
  • Color
  • Diameter
  • Pronounced
    • (NEV-us)
  • Defined
    • Visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definite borders
    • Commonly known as a mole
  • Pronounced
    • (on-ih-koh-krip-TOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Ingrown nail
      • Most commonly involves the large toe
  • Pronounced
    • (on-ih-koh-my-KOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Fungal infection of the nails
  • Pronounced
    • (pee-dik-you-LOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by blood-sucking lice
  • Pediculosis capitis
    • Head
  • Pediculosis corporis
    • Body
  • Pediculosis palpebrarum
    • Eyelashes and eyelids
  • Pediculosis pubis
    • Pubic hair
  • Pronounced
    • (PEM-fih-gus)
  • Defined
    • Rare, incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin
    • Spreads to involve large areas of the body
pilonidal cyst
Pilonidal Cyst
  • Pronounced
    • (pye-loh-NYE-dal SIST)
  • Defined
    • Closed sac located in the sacrococcygeal area of the back
    • Sometimes noted at birth as a dimple
  • Pronounced
    • (soh-RYE-ah-sis)
  • Defined
    • Common, noninfectious, chronic skin disorder manifested by silvery-white scales over round, raised, reddened plaques producing itching
    • Pruritus
  • Pronounced
    • (roh-ZAY-she-ah)
  • Defined
    • Chronic inflammatory skin disease that mainly affects the skin of the middle third of the face
      • Characterized by persistent redness over the areas of the face, nose, and cheeks
  • Pronounced
    • (SKAY-beez)
  • Defined
    • Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by the “human itch mite”
    • Resulting in a rash, pruritus, and a feeling in the skin of “something crawling”
  • Pronounced
    • (sklair-ah-DER-mah)
  • Defined
    • Gradual thickening of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state in which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue
systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Pronounced
    • (sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus air-ih-them-ah-TOH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Chronic, multi-system, inflammatory disease characterized by lesions of the nervous system and skin, renal problems, and vasculitis
    • Characteristic “Butterfly rash” is often seen on nose and face
  • Pronounced
    • (TIN-ee-ah)
  • Defined
    • Chronic fungal infection of the skin
    • Characterized by scaling, itching, and sometimes painful lesions
  • Tinea capitis
    • Scalp
  • Tinea corporis
    • Body
  • Tinea cruris
    • Groin
  • Tinea pedis
    • Foot
  • Pronounced
    • (ver-ROO-kah)
  • Defined
    • Benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesion that results from hypertrophy of the epidermis
    • Commonly known as a wart
  • Verruca vulgaris
    • Common wart on face, elbow, fingers, or hands
  • Plantar warts
    • Singly or in clusters on the sole of the foot
  • Venereal warts
    • Transmitted by sexual contact
  • Seborrheic warts
    • Seen in the elderly on the face, neck, chest, or upper back
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures56
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Allergy testing
    • Various procedures used to identify specific allergens in an individual by exposing the person to a very small quantity of the allergen
  • Cautery
    • Heat or caustic substances that burn and scar the skin
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures57
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Cryosurgery
    • Noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy tissue
  • Curettage and electrodesiccation
    • Scraping away of abnormal tissue, followed by destroying the tumor base with a low-voltage electrode
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures58
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Debridement
    • Removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
  • Dermabrasion
    • Removal of the epidermis and a portion of the dermis with sandpaper or brushes in order to eliminate superficial scars of unwanted tattoos
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures59
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Dermatoplasty
    • Skin transplantation to a body surface damaged by injury or disease
  • Electrodesiccation
    • Technique using an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue
    • Also known as fulguration
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures60
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Electrosurgery
    • Removal or destruction of tissue with an electrical current
  • Escharotomy
    • Incision made into the necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures61
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Liposuction
    • Aspiration of fat through a suction cannula or curette to alter the body contours
  • Skin biopsy
    • Removal of a small piece of tissue from skin lesions for examination under a microscope to confirm or establish a diagnosis
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures62
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Skin graft
    • Process of placing tissue on a recipient site, taken from a donor site, in order to provide the protective mechanisms of skin to an area unable to regenerate skin
  • Wood’s lamp
    • Ultraviolet light that is used to examine the scalp and skin for the purpose of observing fungal spores