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Chapter 18
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  1. Chapter 18 Norton Media Library Give Me Liberty! An American History Second EditionVolume 2 by Eric Foner

  2. I. Introduction • Progressive era • Surge in production, consumption, urban growth • Persistence of social problems • Progressivism • Broad-based elements • Loosely-defined meanings • Varied and contradictory character • New notions of American freedom

  3. II. Urban age • Early-twentieth-century economic explosion • “Golden age” for agriculture • Growth in number and size of cities • Start contrasts of opulence and poverty • Popular attention to dynamism and ills of the city • Painters and photographers • Muckrakers • Lewis Hine’s photography • Lincoln Steffen’s The Shame of the Cities • Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil Company • Novelists • Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle

  4. II. Urban age (cont’d) • Immigrants and Immigration • Height of “new immigration” from southern and eastern Europe • Immigration from agrarian to industrial centers as a global process • Volume and flows • Causes • Circumstances of immigrants • Ellis Island • Influx of Asian and Mexican immigrants in West • Immigrant presence in industrial cities

  5. II. Urban age (cont’d) • Immigrants and Immigration 6. Aspirations of new immigrants • Social and legal equality, freedom on conscience, economic opportunity, escape from poverty • Means to acquire land back home • Material property as central to “freedom 7. Circumstances of new immigrants • Close-knit “ethnic” neighborhoods • Social institutions • Preservation of native languages • Churches • Low pay, harsh working conditions

  6. II. Urban age (cont’d) D. The new mass-consumption society • Outlets for consumer goods • Department stores • Neighborhood chain stores • Retail mail order houses • Expanding range and availability of consumer goods • Leisure activities • Amusement parks • Dance halls • Theaters; vaudeville • Movies; “nickelodeons”

  7. II. Urban age (cont’d) E. Women in urban public life • Employment • Racial and ethnic stratification • Working woman as symbol of female emancipation; Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s Women and Economics • Leisure, entertainment F. “Fordism” • Background on Henry Ford, Ford Motor Company • Production innovations • Standardized output • Lower prices • Assembly line

  8. II. Urban age (cont’d) F. “Fordism” • Strategies to attract and discipline labor • Five-dollar day • Anti-union espionage • Linking of mass production and mass consumption G. Impact of mass-consumption ideal • Recasting “American way of life,” “freedom” • Challenges to material inequalities • Labor unionism • Critique of corporate monopoly • Doctrine of “a living wage”; Father John A. Ryan

  9. III. Changing ideas of freedom • Varieties of Progressivism • Industrial labor and the meanings of freedom • Frederick W. Taylor’s “scientific management” • Principles of • Mixed response to • Favorable: as way to enhance efficiency • Unfavorable: as threat to worker independence • New talk of “industrial freedom,” “industrial democracy”

  10. III. Changing ideas of freedom (cont’d) • Socialist party • High watermark of American socialism • Membership • Elected officials • Newspapers • Eugene V. Debs • Program • Immediate reforms • Public ownership of railroads and factories • Democratic control of economy

  11. III. Changing ideas of freedom (cont’d) • Socialist party 3. Breadth of following • Urban immigrant communities • Western farming and mining regions • Native-born intelligentsia 4. Rising presence of socialism throughout Atlantic World • Labor movement • American Federation of Labor • Surge of growth • Boundaries of membership • Skilled industrial and craft laborers • White, male, and native-born

  12. III. Changing ideas of freedom (cont’d) • Labor movement • American Federation of Labor • Moderate ideology; ties with business Progressives • National Civic Federation • Collective bargaining for “responsible” unions • Alternative strain of rigid employer anti-unionism • Industrial Workers of the World • Inclusion of workers from all stations and backgrounds • Trade union militancy • Advocate of workers’ revolution • William “Big Bill” Haywood • Support and guidance for mass, multiethnic strikes

  13. III. Changing ideas of freedom (cont’d) • Labor movement 3. High points of broad-based labor struggle • Lawrence “Bread and Roses” textile strike; march of strikers’ children • New Orleans dock workers strike • Paterson silk workers strike; Paterson pageant • Colorado Fuel and Iron miners strike; Ludlow Massacre 4. Suppression of labor radicalism and emergence of “civil liberties” issue

  14. III. Changing views of freedom (cont’d) • Shadings of feminism • Appearance of term “feminism” • “Lyrical Left” • New cultural “bohemia” • Radical reassessments of politics, the arts, sexuality • Rise of personal freedom • Freudian psychology • Free sexual expression and choice • Pockets of open gay culture • Birth control movement • Emma Goldman • Margaret Sanger

  15. IV. The Politics of Progressivism • Global scope of Progressive impulse • Common strains arising from industrial and urban growth • International networks of social reformers • Influence of European “social legislation” on American reformers • Shared premises • Commitment to activist government • View of freedom as a positive concept • “Effective freedom”; power to do things” • John Dewey, Randolf Bourne • Trans-Atlantic scope of Progressive impulse

  16. IV. The Politics of Progressivism (cont’d) • Progressivism in municipal and state politics • Agendas • Curbing of political machines • Regulation of public utilities, railroads, and other business interests • Taxation of property and corporate wealth • Improvement and enhancement of public space • Humanizing of working and living conditions • Significant municipal and state Progressives • Mayors Hazen Pingree (Detroit) and Samuel “Golden Rule” Jones (Toledo) • Governors Hiram Johnson (California) and Robert M. La Follettee (Wisconsin)

  17. IV. The Politics of Progressivism (cont’d) • Progressive democracy • Expansion and empowerment of electorate • Popular election of U.S. senators, judges • Primary elections • Initiatives, referendums, recalls • Women’s Suffrage • Contraction and curtailment of electorate • Disenfranchisement of southern blacks • Spread of appointed city commissions or managers • Narrowing of voting rights for the poor • Preference for government by experts; Walter Lippmann’s Drift and Mastery

  18. IV. The Politics of Progressivism (cont’d) • Women reformers • Challenge to political exclusion • Crusades to uplift condition of immigrant poor, women, and child laborers • Settlement house movement • Government measures to alleviate problems of housing, labor, health • Racist aspect • Leading figures • Jane Addams (Hull House) • Julie Lathrop (Children’s Bureau) • Florence Kelley (National Consumers’ League)

  19. IV. The Politics of Progressivism (cont’d) • Revival of suffrage movement • Scattered progress at state and local levels • Gathering focus on constitutional amendment • Ambiguities of “maternalist” reform • Drive to improve conditions of working women while reconfirming their dependent status • Mothers’ pensions • Maximum working hours for women (Muller v. Oregon; Brandeis brief) • Stamping of gender inequalities into foundation for welfare state

  20. IV. The Politics of Progressivism (cont’d) • Native American Progressivism • Profile of Indian reformers • Intellectuals • Pan-Indian • Society of American Indians • Shared aims • Highlight plight of Native Americans • Promote justice for Native Americans • Differing aims • Endorsement of federal Indian polity • Full citizenship rights • Self-determination • Carlos Montezuma

  21. V. Progressive presidents • Progressivism and the rise of the national state • Theodore Roosevelt • Succession to presidency; reelection in 1904 • Limits on corporate power • “Good trusts” and “bad trusts” • Northern Securities case • Mediation between labor and capital: 1902 coal strike arbitration • Regulation of business • Hepburn Act • Pure Food and Drug Act • Meat Inspection Act • Mixed reaction from business

  22. V. Progressive presidents (cont’d) • Theodore Roosevelt • Conservation movement • Late-nineteenth-century antecedents • Early national parks • Sierra Club; John Muir • Wildlife preserves and national parks • Balance between development and conservation; Gifford Pinchot • Water as a key point of contention

  23. V. Progressive presidents (cont’d) • William Howard Taft • Anointment as successor by Roosevelt; electoral victory over Bryan • Partial continuation of Progressive agenda • Antitrust initiatives • Standard Oil case • American Tobacco case • Upholding of “good trust”/”bad trust” distinction by Supreme Court • Support for graduated income tax (Sixteenth Amendment) • Conservative drift; Pinchot-Ballinger affair

  24. V. Progressive presidents (cont’d) • Election of 1912 • Distinctive outlooks on political and economic freedom • Woodrow Wilson (Democrat; “New Freedom”) • Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive; “New Nationalism”) • William Howard Taft (Republican; conservative wing) • Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) • Wilson victory • Wilson’s first-term program • Underwood tariff • Labor • Clayton Act • Keating-Owen Act • Adamson Act

  25. V. Progressive presidents (cont’d) • Wilson’s first-term program 3. Farmers: Warehouse Act 4. Supervision of economy • Federal Reserve System • Federal Trade Commission

  26. http://www.wwnorton.com/foner Studyspace link

  27. End slide This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 18 Give Me Liberty! An American History 2nd Edition, Volume 2 by Eric Foner W. W. Norton & CompanyIndependent and Employee-Owned